Cattleya

Cattleya (/ˈkætliə/)[2] is a genus of orchids from Costa Rica south to Argentina.[1] The genus is abbreviated C in trade journals.[3]

Cattleya
Cattleya labiata Orchi 1013.jpg
Cattleya labiata
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Subtribe: Laeliinae
Genus: Cattleya
Lindl.
Type species
Cattleya labiata
Synonyms[1]
  • Sophronia Lindl.
  • Sophronitis Lindl.
  • Maelenia Dumort.
  • Lophoglotis Raf.
  • × Sophrocattleya Rolfe
  • Eunannos Porta & Brade
  • Hoffmannseggella H.G.Jones
  • Dungsia Chiron & V.P.Castro
  • × Hadrocattleya V.P.Castro & Chiron
  • × Hadrodungsia V.P.Castro & Chiron
  • Hadrolaelia (Schltr.) Chiron & V.P.Castro
  • × Microcattleya V.P.Castro & Chiron
  • Microlaelia (Schltr.) Chiron & V.P.Castro
  • Cattleyella Van den Berg & M.W.Chase
  • Schluckebieria Braem
  • × Brasicattleya Campacci
  • Brasilaelia Campacci
  • Chironiella Braem

DescriptionEdit

Epiphytic or terrestrial orchids with cylindrical rhizome from which the fleshy noodle-like roots grow. Pseudobulbs can be conical, spindle-shaped or cylindrical; with upright growth; one or two leaves growing from the top of them. The leaves can be oblong, lanceolate or elliptical, somewhat fleshy, with smooth margin. The inflorescence is a terminal raceme with few or several flowers. Flowers have sepals and petals free from each other; the lip or labellum (lowermost petal), usually has a different coloration and shape from the rest of the flower and covers in part the flower column forming a tube. There are four polliniums (bag-like organs that contain pollen). The fruit is a capsule with many small seeds.[4][5][6]

TaxonomyEdit

The genus was named in 1824 by John Lindley after horticulturalist William Cattley. Cattley obtained a specimen of then unnamed Cattleya labiata from William Swainson who had discovered the new plant in Pernambuco, Brazil, in 1817. The plant successfully bloomed under the care of Cattley and it became the type specimen from which Lindley described C. labiata.[7]

Currently accepted species and subgeneric division within genus Cattleya are:[8][9][10][11][12][13]

Subgenus CattleyaEdit

Section CattleyaEdit

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
  C. aurea S. Panama to Colombia 300 - 1000 meters
  C. dowiana Costa Rica 250 - 1200 meters
  C. gaskelliana Colombia to Trinidad 700 - 1000 meters
  C. iricolor Ecuador to Peru 400 - 1220 meters
  C. jenmanii Venezuela to Guyana 300 - 600 meters
  C. labiata Brazil 600 - 900 meters
  C. luteola N. Brazil, Ecuador to Bolivia 100 - 1200 meters
  C. mendelii NE. Colombia 1300 - 1800 meters
  C. mooreana Peru around 990 meters
  C. mossiae N. Venezuela 900 - 1500 meters
  C. percivaliana Colombia to W. Venezuela 1300 - 2000 meters
  C. quadricolor Colombia 600 - 1500 meters
C. rex Peru to N Bolivia around 1350 meters
  C. schroederae NE. Colombia .
  C. trianae Colombia around 1200 meters
  C. warneri E. Brazil 400 - 900 meters
  C. warscewiczii Colombia 500 - 1700 meters
Series CattleyodesEdit
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
  C. crispa SE. Brazil 800 - 1500 meters
C. grandis Brazil - SE. Bahia to N. Espírito Santo .
  C. lobata SE. Brazil.
  C. perrinii SE. Brazil 700 - 900 meters
  C. purpurata SE. & S. Brazil
  C. tenebrosa Brazil - SE. Bahia to Espírito Santo .
C. virens SE. Brazil 1000 - 1500 meters
  C. xanthina Brazil - Bahia to Espírito Santo .
Series HadrolaeliaEdit
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
  C. alaorii Brazil - Bahia 200 - 600 meters
  C. bicalhoi Brazil - S. Minas Gerais to Rio de Janeiro 500 - 2000 meters
  C. jongheana Brazil - Minas Gerais 1300 - 1600 meters
  C. praestans SE. Brazil 300 - 500 meters
  C. pumila SE. & S. Brazil 600 - 1300 meters
  C. sincorana Brazil - Bahia 1100 - 1500 meters
Series MicrolaeliaEdit
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
  C. lundii Bolivia to Argentina 740 - 1000 meters
Series ParvifloraeEdit
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
C. alvarenguensis Brazil - Minas Gerais around 800 meters
  C. alvaroana Brazil - Rio de Janeiro
  C. angereri Brazil - Minas Gerais 1000-1300 meters
  C. blumenscheinii Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1200 meters
C. bradei Brazil - Minas Gerais 1100 - 1400 meters
C. briegeri Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1370 meter
C. campacii Brazil
  C. caulescens Brazil - Minas Gerais 600 - 1200 meters
  C. cinnabarina Brazil - S. Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro 800 - 1500 meters
  C. colnagoi Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. conceicionensis Brazil - Minas Gerais 800 - 1200 meters
  C. crispata Brazil - Minas Gerais 400 - 1200 meters
  C. endsfeldzii Brazil - Minas Gerais 900 meters
  C. esalqueana Brazil - Minas Gerais 1100 - 1300 meters
C. flavasulina Brazil - Minas Gerais 900 - 1440 meters
  C. fournieri Brazil - Minas Gerais 1100 - 1800 meters
  C. ghillanyi Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. gloedeniana Brazil - São Paulo around 1600 meters
C. gracilis Brazil - Minas Gerais: Serra do Cipó
C. guanhanensis Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1100 meters
  C. harpophylla Brazil - Minas Gerais to Espírito Santo 500 - 900 meters
C. hatae Brazil - Minas Gerais 1000 - 1100 meters
C. hegeriana Brazil - Rio de Janeiro 1000 - 1200 meters
C. hispidula Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1200 meters
  C. hoehnei Brazil - Espírito Santo around 800 meters
C. itambana Brazil - Minas Gerais 1500 to 2200 meters
C. kautskyana Brazil - Espírito Santo 600 - 1000 meters
C. kettieana Brazil - Minas Gerais 1500 - 2000 meters
  C. kleberi Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1100 meters
C. liliputana Brazil - Minas Gerais: Serra do Ouro Branco 1200 - 1400 meters
C. locatellii Brazil - Minas Gerais
  C. longipes SE. Brazil - Serra do Cipó 1300 - 2000 meters
  C. luetzelburgii Brazil - Bahia 1100 - 1700 meters.
C. macrobulbosa Brazil - Espírito Santo around 1600 meters
  C. marcaliana Brazil - Bahia 200 - 300 meters
C. milleri Brazil - Minas Gerais 800 - 1300 meters
  C. mirandae Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1300 meters
  C. munchowiana Brazil - Espírito Santo 1100 - 1300 meters
  C. neokautskyi SE. Brazil 600 - 1000 meters.
  C. pabstii Brazil - Minas Gerais 1200 meters
C. pendula Brazil - Minas Gerais
  C. pfisteri Brazil - Bahia around 1300 meters
C. presidentensis Brazil - Minas Gerais 1000 - 1300 meters
  C. reginae Brazil - Minas Gerais 1200 - 2000 meters
  C. rupestris Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. sanguiloba Brazil – Bahia
C. tereticaulis Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. vandenbergii Brazil - Minas Gerais
  C. vasconcelosiana Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1100 meters
C. verboonenii Brazil - Rio de Janeiro
C. viridiflora Brazil - Minas Gerais
Series SophronitisEdit
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
C. acuensis Brazil - Rio de Janeiro 1800 - 2100 meters
C. alagoensis Brazil - Alagoas 300 - 500 meters
  C. brevipedunculata Brazil - Minas Gerais 1220 - 2000 meters
  C. cernua Brazil to NE. Argentina 2 - 100 meters
  C. coccinea Brazil to NE. Argentina 650 - 1670 meters
C. dichroma Brazil - Rio de Janeiro 1200 - 1525 meters
  C. mantiqueirae SE. Brazil 1200 - 1890 meters
C. pygmaea Brazil - Espírito Santo 915 - 1067 meters
  C. wittigiana Brazil - Espírito Santo 700 - 2000 meters

Section LawrenceanaeEdit

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
  C. lawrenceana Venezuela, Guyana, N. Brazil 250 - 2400 meters
  C. lueddemanniana N. Venezuela 0 - 500 meters
  C. wallisii N. Brazil

Subgenus CattleyellaEdit

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
  C. araguaiensis Brazil 395 - 610 meters

Subgenus IntermediaeEdit

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
  C. aclandiae Brazil 100 - 400 meters
  C. amethystoglossa Brazil around 600 meters
  C. bicolor SE. Brazil
  C. dormaniana Brazil 600 - 100 meters
  C. elongata Brazil 900 - 1500 meters
  C. forbesii Brazil around 200 meters
  C. granulosa Brazil 600 - 900 meters
  C. guttata Brazil .
  C. harrisoniana SE. Brazil
  C. intermedia SE. & S. Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
  C. kerrii Brazil
  C. loddigesii SE. Brazil to NE. Argentina .
  C. nobilior WC. Brazil to Bolivia 170 - 700 meters
  C. porphyroglossa Brazil .
  C. schilleriana Brazil 0 - 800 meters.
  C. schofieldiana Brazil around 900 meters
  C. tenuis NE. Brazil 1000 - 1200 meters.
  C. tigrina SE. & S. Brazil 0 - 100 meters.
  C. velutina Brazil
  C. violacea lowland Amazon rainforest & Guyana 200 - 700 meters
  C. walkeriana WC. & SE. Brazil 0 - 2000 meters.

Subgenus MaximaeEdit

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
  C. maxima Venezuela to Peru 10 - 1500 meters

Natural hybridsEdit

Currently accepted natural hybrids are:[13]

NothogeneraEdit

This section is incomplete.

Hybrids of Cattleya and other genera are placed in the following nothogenera:

CultivationEdit

 
Cattleya mossiae fo. coerulea
  • Light
Cattleyas need light, but not direct sunlight; in case of intense sunlight, shade must be provided.[14]
  • Temperature
Day temperatures must be between 25-30 °C (77-86 °F) and night temperatures not lower than 10-12 °C (50-53.6 °F).[14]
  • Humidity
Must be between 40-70% with good ventilation; however plants must not be exposed to air currents.[15]
  • Watering
Water only if substrate is dry. It can be done once a week, but it all depends on the environmental conditions and the season.[15]
  • Fertilizing
Cattleyas can survive without fertilizing. However, it is advisable to use nitrogen-based fertilizers without urea; fertilizers must be applied during the growth season.[15] To avoid salt accumulation in the substrate, water thoroughly between fertilizer applications.[15]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal botanic Gardens Kew. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ "Alphabetical list of standard abbreviations of all generic names occurring in current use in orchid hybrid registration as at 31st December 2007" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society.
  4. ^ Buzatto, Cristiano Roberto; Ferreira, Priscila Porto Alegre; Welker, Cassiano Aimberê Dorneles; Seger, Guilherme Dubal dos Santos; Hertzog, Anelise; Singer, Rodrigo B. (2010). "O gênero Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil". Revista Brasileira de Biociências (in Portuguese). 8 (4). ISSN 1980-4849.
  5. ^ Withner, C. (1988). The Cattleyas and Their Relatives. Volume 1: The Cattleyas. Timber Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 9780881920994.
  6. ^ Schweinfurth, C., "Orchidaceae, Orchids of Peru", Fieldiana, Botany 30(3): 535
  7. ^ "Cattleya, Queen of the Orchids: The Showy Cattleya, Queen of the Orchids, BEGINNERS' HANDBOOK - XV". www.aos.org. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  8. ^ Van den Berg, Cássio (2014). "Reaching a compromise between conflicting nuclear and plastid phylogenetic trees: a new classification for the genus Cattleya (Epidendreae; Epidendroideae; Orchidaceae)". Phytotaxa. 186 (2): 75. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.186.2.2. ISSN 1179-3163.
  9. ^ "Laelia gracilis - IOSPE PHOTOS". www.orchidspecies.com. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Cattleya hispidula - IOSPE PHOTOS". www.orchidspecies.com. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  11. ^ "Cattleya gracilis (Pabst) Van den Berg — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  12. ^ van den Berg, Cássio (2016). "Nomenclatural notes on Laeliinae-VI. Further combinations in Cattleya (Orchidaceae)". Neodiversity. 9 (1): 4–5. doi:10.13102/neod.91.2.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ a b "Cattleya - World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Archived from the original on 8 September 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  14. ^ a b Schoser, Gustav (1993). Orchid Growing Basics. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 64. ISBN 9780806903620.
  15. ^ a b c d "Cattleyas for the Beginner - Part 1". www.aos.org. Retrieved 3 July 2017.

External linksEdit