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The caste systems in Sri Lanka are social stratification systems found among the ethnic groups of the island since ancient times. The models are similar to those found in Continental India, but are less extensive and important for various reasons, although the caste systems still play an important and at least symbolic role in religion and politics. Sri Lanka is often considered to be a casteless or caste-blind society by Indians.[1]

The caste systems of Sri Lanka were historically not tied to the religious establishment but rather a tool to service the ruling elite - a model more reminiscent of feudalism in Europe. At least three major, parallel caste systems exist in Sri Lankan society: Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil and Indian Tamils.[1]

A universal welfare system which focused on providing education for everyone regardless of background has provided people from lower caste groups similar opportunities to enter jobs previously only frequented by those in upper caste groups, with younger generations mostly rejecting any pressure to conform to caste-related jobs. The Civil War has also broken down caste barriers as they were seen as an obstacle towards ethnolinguistic unity.[1]

Contents

OverviewEdit

In ancient Ceylon, although marriages between Sinhalese and Tamils (usually among higher castes) were not uncommon, they occurred between comparable castes; Eurasians and South Indian Chetties married into the southern Sinhalese Govigama and Karava.[2]

Although caste discrimination is still found in Sri Lanka (particularly in rural areas), caste boundaries are blurring.[1] Political power and wealth have largely replaced caste as the main factor in Sri Lankan social stratification, especially in the Sinhalese and Indian Tamil communities.[3] Ponnambalam Ramanathan, under British Ceylon, opposed extending voting rights to the people and urged reservation of franchise only to men of the Vellalar caste.[4]

Sinhalese castesEdit

The documented history of the island begins with the arrival of Prince Vijaya from India. The island was reportedly inhabited by four tribes at that time: the Dewa, Nagas, Yakkas and Raksha. Although the origin of Sri Lankan communities is unclear,[5] genetic studies on Sinhalese have shown that most of the Sinhala community is genetically very related to upper caste Bengali people.[6][7][8][9][10][11] About half of the Sinhalese population are Govigama who are descending from Bengali and Shakyan Settlers. [12]

Ancient Sri Lankan texts, such as the Pujavaliya, Sadharmaratnavaliya, Yogaratnakaraya and inscriptions, show that a fourfold caste category namely Raja, Bamunu, Velanda and Govi existed among the Sinhalese. Evidence of this hierarchy can be seen during the 18th century British-Kandyan period,[13] indicating its continuation even after the Sri Lankan monarchy.[14][15] Colonialism and foreign intervention in the dynastic conflicts of the island throughout history has also influenced the caste system, some suggesting even a re-arrangement of the occupational castes.[16][17]

Kandyan castes

In the Central Highlands, many traditions of the Kingdom of Kandy were preserved from its 1818 collapse beyond independence in 1948 and the Land Reform Act of the 1970s. Although large agricultural landlords belonged to the Govigama caste, many now may not own land. Most Govigama were however ordinary farmers and tenants as absolute land ownership was exclusive to the king until the British colonial period.[18] The most important feature of the Kandyan system was Rajakariya ("the king's work"), which linked each caste to an occupation and demanded service to the court and religious institutions.[19]

Southern castes

There are still differences between the caste structures of the highlands and those of the low country, although some service groups were common to both in ancient Sri Lanka. The southwestern coast has three other castes (the Salagama, the Durava and the Karava) in addition to the majority of ancient Govigama, which is common throughout the region. Some of these castes' ancestors are believed to have migrated from Southern India, and have become important in the Sinhalese social system. The first-century BC Anuradhpura Abayagiri inscription referring to a Karava navika may be the first reference to a specialized occupation.[20][21]

Sinhalese Castes and Sub-Castes[22][23]
Rank Caste Sub-Caste Occupation Location Origin % of population Notes
1 Goyigama
1a. Radalavaru Governing elite Kandyan ~50%[24][25]
1b. Mudaliperuwa Knighted elite
1c. Ratè atto Lesser officers of state
1d. Goviyo Farmers
2 Karava Fisherman Low Country South India
(13–18th Century)[26][note 1]
3/4 of Low Country population[28] Achieved a higher status under
Portuguese and Dutch rule.
3 Salagama Weavers/Cinnamon peelers
4 Durava Toddy tappers
5 Navadanna Artisans Island wide Status used to be above that of the
Karava, Salagama & Durava
[29]
6 Hannāli Tailors Kandyan Virtually extinct[30]
7 Hunu Chunam burners Island wide
8 Hēna Washers to high castes Island wide
9 Vahumpura Jaggery makers Island wide Claims higher status in Ancient periods [31]
10 Hinnā Washers to Salagama Low Country
11 Baḍahäla Potters Island wide
12 Panikki Barbers Low Country
13 Velli-durayi Guardians of the sacred Bo tree Kandyan
14 Panna-durayi Possibly grass-cutters Kandyan
15 Beravā Tom-tom beaters Island wide
16 Batgam Beravā Tom-tom beaters Kandyan
17 Kontadurayi Unknown Kandyan
18 Batgam Possibly King's Palanquin bearers Kandyan
19 Olī Dancers Island wide
20 Palī Washers to low castes Kandyan
21 Kinnara Mat weavers Kandyan
22 Galaha-beravā Funeral drummers and executioners Kandyan
23 Rodi Beggars 1,500–3000[32]
24 Kavikara Shrine dancers and chanters
25 Demala-Gattara Tamil outcastes Low Country South India
(during Portuguese rule)[33]

Sri Lankan Tamil castesEdit

The caste system has stronger religious ties than its Sinhalese counterpart, although both systems have comparable castes.[34] There are in the Sri Lankan Tamil caste system, distinctions between Northern and Eastern societies and also the agricultural and coastal societies.

The agricultural society have mainly the castes of the Vellalar, Nalavar and Koviar, where the Vellalar caste is the dominating one, particularly in Northern Sri Lanka. They constitute approximately half of the Sri Lankan Tamil population and are the major land owning and agricultural caste.[35][36]

The Northern and Western coastal societies are dominated by the Karaiyars, who are traditionally a seafaring and warrior caste.[37] The Thimilar and the Paravar are also among the coastal communities involved in fishing. The Mukkuvars, traditional pearl divers, dominate greater parts of Eastern Sri Lanka where they are the major landowners also involved in agriculture.[38][39]

The artisans, known locally as Kammalar or Vishwakarma consists of the Kannar (brass-workers), Kollar (blacksmiths), Tattar (goldsmiths), Tatchar (carpenters), Kartatchar (sculptor).[40][41] Along with the Kammalar were the Ambattar (barbers), Kadaiyar (lime burners), Koviar (farmers), Kusavar (potters), Maraiyar (conch blowers), Nattuvar (musician), Nalavar (toddy-tappers), Pallar (farmers), Paraiyar (drummers and weavers), Turumbar (scavengers) and Vannar (dhobies) the domestic servants termed as Kudimakkal.[42] The Kudimakkal gave ritual importance in marriage, funeral and other temple ceremonies.[43][44]

Other Sri Lankan Tamil castes of importance are the Cirpatar (cultivators), Iyer (priests), Sengunthar Kaikolar (silk-weavers), Madapalli (former royal cooks), Seniyar (cotton-weavers), Siviyar (palanquin bearers), Cantar (oil-presser) and Maravar (mercenaries).[45][46][47] The Sri Lankan Chetties, traditional merchants, along with the Bharatha people, traditional sea-traders, are listed as their own ethnicities in Sri Lankan census.[48] The Coast Veddas, found mainly in Eastern Sri Lanka are considered a Tamil caste among the Sri Lankan Tamils.[49]

The village deities of the Sri Lankan Tamils are also shaped by the caste structure. The Sri Lankan Moors don't practice the caste system, however follow a matriclan system which is an extension of Tamil tradition.[50]

Indian Tamil castesEdit

The Tolkāppiyam Porulatikaram indicating the four-fold division is the earliest Tamil literature to mention caste.[51] Sangam literature however mentions only five kudis associated with the five tinais.[51][52] Colonialism also had influenced the caste system.[53][54]

Tamils of Indian origin (Hill Country Tamils, who were brought to the island by the British as indentured labour) also follows the Indian caste system form which is called jāti. Their caste structure resembles that of a Tamil Nadu village.

Those who are considered to be of higher castes occupy the first row of line rooms. They perform respectable jobs such as factory work and grinding of tea as minor labour work. Even though they belong to the labour category they are influential among conductors, tea makers, kanganies (or supervisors) and other officials. The workers considered low caste live in the dwellings that are away from the centre and these dwellings are called distant or lower lines. This group consists of Pallar, Paraiyars, Sakkiliar, washers and barbers. The yard sweepers and changers of clothes are in the lowest rank.[55]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Salagama from the Coromandel Coast[27]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Silva, Kalinga Tudor; Sivapragasam, P.P.; Thanges, Paramsothy (2009). "Caste Discrimination and Social Justice in Sri Lanka: An Overview" (PDF). Indian Institute of Dalit Studies. III. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  2. ^ Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith (2008). The adaptable peasant: agrarian society in western Sri Lanka under Dutch rule, 1740-1800, By Nirmal Ranjith Dewasiri, p. 201. ISBN 9789004165083.
  3. ^ Caste in Jaffna And India, Review Article on Neville Jayaweera's Jaffna Exorcising the Past and Holding the Vision Dr. Devanesan Nesiah (Sunday Leader 10.10.2014)
  4. ^ Phadnis, Urmila; Muni, Sukh Deo; Bahadur, Kalim (1986). Domestic Conflicts in South Asia: Economic and Ethnic Dimensions. South Asian Publishers. p. 128. ISBN 9788170030713.
  5. ^ Kshatriya, GK (December 1995). "Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations". Hum. Biol. 67 (6): 843–66. PMID 8543296.
  6. ^ Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza (1996). The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University. pp. 239–40. ISBN 978-0691029054.
  7. ^ Kshatriya, GK (December 1995). "Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations". Hum. Biol. 67: 843–66. PMID 8543296.
  8. ^ Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people: their relations within the island and with the Indian subcontinental populations, L Ranaweera, et al; Journal of Human Genetics (2014)
  9. ^ Pre-Vijayan Agriculture in Sri Lanka, by Prof. T. W. Wikramanayake
  10. ^ A SHORT HISTORY OF LANKA by Humphry William Codrington, CHAPTER I; THE BEGINNINGS 'The princess and her retinue/dowry (service castes)'
  11. ^ Buddhism Betrayed?: Religion, Politics, and Violence in Sri Lanka By Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah, p. 152-3
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-11-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ Kadayimpoth - Boundary Books
  14. ^ Mahavansha
  15. ^ Sinhala Sanna ha Thudapath, Ananada thissa Kumara, Godage Publication,Second Edition,2006,pp 142,pp 137
  16. ^ Kandy Fights the Portuguese, C.Gaston Perera, Vijithayapa Publications, 2007
  17. ^ An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon In The East Indies, Robert knox, 1681, pp. 46 & 73
  18. ^ Land: Feudalism to Modernity.
  19. ^ An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon in the East Indies by Robert Knox. 2004-12-13.
  20. ^ de Silva, Raaj. "The ancient 'Kaurava Pavilion' at Anuradhapura". De Fonseka Web. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.
  21. ^ "Paranavithana S. 1970 Inscriptions of Ceylon Vol I Early Brahmi Inscriptions". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  22. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 93-4.
  23. ^ Perera 1978, p. 315-16.
  24. ^ De Silva 2014, p. 201.
  25. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 95.
  26. ^ De Silva 2014, p. 121.
  27. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 108.
  28. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 111.
  29. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 112.
  30. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 114.
  31. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 117.
  32. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 132.
  33. ^ Ryan 1953, p. 136.
  34. ^ M. M. M. Mahroof (November–December 2000). "A Conspectus of Tamil Caste Systems in Sri Lanka: Away from a Parataxis". Social Scientist. 28 (11/12): 40–59. doi:10.2307/3518280. JSTOR 3518280.
  35. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2015-10-22). Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 65. ISBN 9781442255852.
  36. ^ Bush, Kenneth (2003-12-09). The Intra-Group Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Learning to Read Between the Lines. Springer. p. 52. ISBN 9780230597822.
  37. ^ Das, Sonia N. (2016). Linguistic Rivalries: Tamil Migrants and Anglo-Franco Conflicts. Oxford University Press. p. 236. ISBN 9780190461782.
  38. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1982-09-02). Caste Ideology and Interaction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 58–60. ISBN 9780521241458.
  39. ^ (Jaffna), University Teachers for Human Rights (1991). The Debasement of the law and of humanity and the drift towards total war. UTHR (Jaffna), University of Jaffna, Thirunelvely. p. 31.
  40. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1974). Tamils and Moors: caste and matriclan structure in eastern Sri Lanka. University of Chicago. p. 160.
  41. ^ David, Kenneth (1977-01-01). The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia. Walter de Gruyter. p. 186. ISBN 9783110807752.
  42. ^ David, Kenneth (1977-01-01). The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia. Walter de Gruyter. p. 203. ISBN 9783110807752.
  43. ^ Pranāndu, Mihindukalasūrya Ār Pī Susantā (2005). Rituals, folk beliefs, and magical arts of Sri Lanka. Susan International. p. 459. ISBN 9789559631835.
  44. ^ Raghavan, M. D. (1961). The Karāva of Ceylon: Society and Culture. K.V.G. De Sīlva. pp. 87–88.
  45. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (1983). "Paraiyar Drummers of Sri Lanka: Consensus and Constraint in an Untouchable Caste". American Ethnologist. 10 (1): 97–115. doi:10.1525/ae.1983.10.1.02a00060. JSTOR 644706.
  46. ^ Chitty, Simon Casie (1834). The Ceylon Gazetteer: Containing an Accurate Account of the Districts, Provinces, Cities, Towns ... &c. of the Island of Ceylon. Cotta Church Mission Press. p. 55.
  47. ^ Modern Ceylon Studies. 4. University of Ceylon. 1975. p. 28.
  48. ^ "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka" (PDF). Department of Census and Statistics. 2012.
  49. ^ Samarasinghe, S. W. R. de A.; Studies, International Centre for Ethnic; utviklingshjelp, Norway Direktoratet for (1990). The Vanishing aborigines: Sri Lanka's Veddas in transition. International Centre for Ethnic Studies in association with NORAD and Vikas Pub. House. p. 70.
  50. ^ KLEM, BART (2011). "Islam, Politics and Violence in Eastern Sri Lanka". The Journal of Asian Studies. 70 (3): 730–753. doi:10.1017/S002191181100088X. JSTOR 41302391.
  51. ^ a b Chattopadhyaya, Brajadulal (2009). A Social History of Early India. CSC and Pearson Education. pp. 30–37. ISBN 9788131719589.
  52. ^ KOLAPPAN, B (2015). "Early Tamil society was free of caste". The Hindu.
  53. ^ Fernando, Laksiri (2013). "Philip Baldaeus Didn't See A Big Ethnic Difference In Ceylon". Colombo Telegraph.
  54. ^ Schröder, Ulrike (2012). Ritual, Caste, and Religion in Colonial South India. Primus. p. 72,93–113,278. ISBN 978-9380607214.
  55. ^ Radhakrishnan, V. "Indian origin in Sri Lanka:Their plight and struggle for survival". Proceedings of First International Conference & Gathering of Elders. International Center for Cultural Studies, USA. Archived from the original on 2008-03-20. Retrieved 2008-01-23.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit