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From the Flemish kasseren the phrase entered the English language in the late 16th century, during the wars in the Low Countries. Although the O.E.D. states that the first printed use in this sense appears in Shakespeare's Othello (1603), it appeared in the 1595 tract The Estate of English Fugitives by Lewes Lewkenor, "imploring his help and assistance in so hard an extremity, who for recompence, very charitably cashiered them all without the receipt of one penny".
It is especially associated with the public degradation of disgraced military officers. Prior to World War I this aspect of cashiering sometimes involved a parade-ground ceremony in front of assembled troops with the destruction of symbols of status: epaulettes ripped off shoulders, badges and insignia stripped, swords broken, caps knocked away, and medals torn off and dashed upon the ground.
Famous victims of cashiering include Francis Mitchell (1621), Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (after the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814), Justus McKinstry, Alfred Dreyfus (1894, see trial and conviction of Alfred Dreyfus and Dreyfus affair), and Philippe Pétain (1945).
Following the failure of the 1935 Greek coup d'état attempt lieutenant colonel Christodoulos Tsigantes, his brother captain Ioannis Tsigantes, colonel Stefanos Sarafis and other participants of the coup were cashiered in a public ceremony.
While most closely associated with Captain Dreyfus, the ceremony of formal degradation (French: Dégradation militaire) occurred several times in the French military under the Third Republic. At least one other army officer and a naval officer were subjected to the ritual of having their swords broken and the insignia, braid and buttons publicly torn from their uniforms, after being found guilty of charges of treason. More commonly a number of NCOs and private soldiers underwent similar punishments for committing various serious offenses, before execution or imprisonment.
The physical acts of ripping away insignia and breaking swords could be made easier by some prior preparation. A contemporary account in The New York Times of the Dreyfus cashiering in 1894 says:
"To prepare for stripping the prisoner of his insignia of rank, the prison tailor yesterday removed all the buttons and stripes from Dreyfus’ tunic, the red stripes from his trousers and the regimental number and braid from his collar and cap. These were all replaced with a single stitch so that they could be torn away readily. The condemned man’s sword was also filed almost in two, in order that it might be easily broken. The Adjutant’s quick movement and apparent effort in breaking the sword was consequently mere pretense, as only a mere touch was necessary".
In popular cultureEdit
- Rudyard Kipling's 1890 poem "Danny Deever" portrays the military degradation of a British soldier condemned to be executed for the murder of a comrade.
- In the 1964 film Mary Poppins, there is a cashiering of Mr. Banks as he is dismissed from the bank.
- Each episode of the 1965 American Western series Branded began with the cashiering of the hero, Captain Jason McCord of the U.S. Cavalry.
- In the 2017 film Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales, a main character is cashiered for insubordination by the ship's Captain. They hold no rank on the ship, so the sleeve of their clothing is ripped from the shoulder before they are arrested.
- Holmes, Richard (2001) . "Chapter III - Brothers of the Blade". Redcoat: the British soldier in the age of horse and musket (Hardback ed.). London: HarperCollins. p. 159. ISBN 0-00-257097-1.
- "Δημόσια καθαίρεση αξιωματικών του κινήματος 1ης Μαρτίου" [Public cashiering of the officers of the 1 March coup]. Kathimerini (in Greek). 3 April 1935. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Larcade, Jean-Louis. Zouaves & Tirailleurs: les regiments de march et les regiments mixes (1914–1918). p. 529. ISBN 2-9515171-1-4.
- "Degradation of Dreyfus: Intensely Humiliating Punishment of a Convicted Officer. (p. 5)". The New York Times. January 6, 1895.
- Schlueter, Roger (December 2, 2016). "Breaking the sword of a military man? Thanks to a trick, it's a snap". www.bnd.com. Belleville News-Democrat. Retrieved February 23, 2020.