Carmichael coal mine

The Carmichael coal mine is a thermal coal mine in the north of the Galilee Basin in Central Queensland, Australia, approved by the Queensland and federal Australian governments. Mining was planned to be conducted by both open-cut and underground methods.[1] The mine is proposed by Adani Mining, a wholly owned subsidiary of India's Adani Group. The development was initially intended to represent an AU$16.5 billion investment,[2] however, after being refused financing by over 30 financial institutions worldwide, Adani announced in 2018 that the mining operation would be downsized and self-funded to AU$2bn.[3]

Carmichael coal mine.
Carmichael coal mine. is located in Queensland
Carmichael coal mine.
Carmichael coal mine.
Locationabout 160 km northwest of Clermont
Coordinates22°08′S 146°27′E / 22.133°S 146.450°E / -22.133; 146.450Coordinates: 22°08′S 146°27′E / 22.133°S 146.450°E / -22.133; 146.450
ProductsThermal coal
TypeOpen-pit, underground
CompanyAdani Group

At peak capacity the mine would produce (as of 2017) 60 million tonnes of coal a year, much of it "low quality, high ash".[4] In court, Adani said in 2015 it expects the mine to produce 2.3 billion tonnes over 60 years.[5] It would be the largest coal mine in Australia and one of the largest in the world.[6] The mine would be the first of some large mines proposed for the Galilee Basin.

Exports are to leave the country via port facilities at Hay Point and Abbot Point after being transported to the coast via rail.[1] The proposal includes a new 189 km rail line to connect with the existing Goonyella railway line. Most of the exported coal is planned to be shipped to India.[citation needed]

The mine has drawn immense controversy about its claimed economic benefits,[7] its financial viability, plans for government subsidies and the damaging environmental impacts. Broadly, these have been described as its potential impact upon the Great Barrier Reef, groundwater at its site and its carbon emissions.[8] The emissions from burning the amount of coal expected to be produced from this one mine, whether sourced from it or elsewhere, would, in a "worst-case"[5] scenario be, "approximately 0.53-0.56% of the carbon budget that remains after 2015 to have a likely chance of not exceeding 2 degrees warming...over at least 60 years... Approval of the Mine, therefore, could be either consistent or inconsistent with the goal of limiting warming to 2 degrees, depending on a range of external factors..." according to Doctor Chris Taylor and Associate Professor Malte Meinshausen.[5]

The project has faced multiple legal challenges including from the Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF), which has a legal challenge to the approval given to Adani by the federal Environment Minister relating to water.[9] Greta Thunberg has drawn international attention to the mine. On 11 January 2020 Thunberg called on the German company Siemens to stop the delivery of railway equipment for the mine,[10] but two days later Siemens said that it would continue to honour its contract with Adani. [11]

The Queensland premier, Annastacia Palaszczuk, set June 19, 2019 as a deadline for final environmental approval of the project,[12][13] and it was given state and federal approval on 13 June 2019.[14]


The mining lease mostly covers the Moray Downs cattle station.[15] The majority of the mine lies within the Isaac Region, with a small portion in the Charters Towers Region local government area.[2] Road access is made by the Gregory Developmental Road, an undeveloped section of the Gregory Highway.[15]


In 2010, the Queensland Premier Anna Bligh announced the Coordinator-General declared the proposed Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project was being assessed as a 'Significant Project'.[16] Since then proposal has gone through many changes. The operational life was originally proposed for 150 years.[17] This was later reduced to 90 years and is now proposed for 60 years.[18]

On 8 May 2014, Queensland's Coordinator-General gave approval for the project to proceed.[19] 190 conditions were set by the state during both construction and operations phases of the mine with particular attention paid to groundwater and water bores which may be potentially affected.[19]

On the 29 July 2014, federal Minister for Environment, Greg Hunt, gave approval for the mine to proceed. Federal approval was granted after 36 conditions were stipulated.[20]

Exporting coal from the Carmichael mines requires new terminals and seabed dredging at the Abbot Point coal port. In early September 2014, it was reported the plan to dump dredge spoil in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park area had been scrapped.[21][22] The plan to dump the spoil at sea was widely criticised on the grounds that the fragile coral and seagrass ecosystem could be damaged. Documents released under Freedom of Information showed Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority scientists had opposed the dumping plan.[22] The Palaszczuk Queensland Government is now (2015) the development proponent for a proposal to dump dredge spoil on land within the terminal site.[23]

On 5 August 2015, the federal Department of Environment and Adani signed consent orders in the Federal Court to set aside approval of the Carmichael project.[24] The Department did not correctly follow requirements under federal environment law to consider conservation advice regarding two endangered species affected by the proposal, the yakka skink and the Ornamental Snake. This led to considerable controversy. The Department is presently (2015) reconsidering the proposal.[25]

By mid August 2015, Adani had ceased commercial relationships with a number of engineering contractors and banks.[26]

Project size and operationsEdit


The mine is (as of 2014) planned to contain six open-cut pits and five underground mines.[2] The surface disturbance area is 27,892 hectares (68,923 acres).[18] The mine site covers an area of 44,700 hectares (110,456 acres), around 447 square kilometres (173 sq mi), and is about 50 kilometres (31 mi) long.[27]

Operations at the mine are expected to consume 12 billion litres of water each year.[20] It is required to return only 6% of this water in the first five years.[28] The mine will take a total of 297 billion litres of water from underground aquifers.[29]

The Carmichael River runs through the middle of the mine site. Bridges and flood levees must be built before the Southern mines are constructed.[30]

In the Queensland Land and Environment Court, Adani said it expects the mine to produce 2.3 billion tonnes of coal over 60 years.[5] This implies average production of around 40 million tonnes a year. According to the current Environmental Impact Statement, the Carmichael mine would produce 60 million tonnes of coal per year (at peak capacity).[18]

Rail lineEdit

Two parallel proposals for rail lines between the Carmichael mine and port facilities were floated during the planning process.

In 2014, Adani signed an agreement with South Korean construction company POSCO to develop the North Galilee Basin Rail Project.[31] This 388 kilometres (241 mi) standard-gauge rail line would provide capacity of 100 million tonnes of coal per year, increasing access to the Galilee Basin.[32][33] Authorities suggested the line be financed by the Northern Australia Infrastructure Facility (NAIF),[34] though the Queensland provincial government rejected a funding request in November 2017.[35] In September 2018, Adani announced that it had abandoned plans to build the standard gauge line in favor of constructing a 200 kilometres (120 mi) 1,067mm line to a connection with existing narrow-gauge trackage.[33]

Queensland freight rail operator Aurizon had separate plans to develop narrow-gauge rail lines in the Galilee Basin to serve what it described as "several" entities planning mines in the area, including Carmichael, but with no firm agreements close to complete it withdrew a loan request from the NAIF in February 2018.[35]

In January 2020, in response to protests in Berlin by Extinction Rebellion, Siemens announced it would re-evaluate its contract to supply signaling systems for the rail link,[36] but decided to continue with the contract saying there was "practically no legally and economically responsible way to unwind the contract without neglecting fiduciary duties."[37]

Port expansionEdit

The mine requires a significant expansion of port facilities. Deutsche Bank and HSBC declined to fund the Abbot Point port expansion due to environmental concerns affecting their reputation.[20] Labour accommodation and infrastructure

In October 2017, Adani announced that Rockhampton and Townsville will both be used as bases for the expected labour, on a fly-in fly-out basis.[38] In the same date, the councils of both cities announced investments for a new airstrip close to the mining site to allow the transit from the proposed hubs,[38] with up to 31 million AUD[39] or 34 million AUD[40] of total public investment between both institution. This followed competition to host the expected 2,000 jobs derived from the project construction stage.[38]

The news, however, raised criticism due to the lack of transparency in the process, the councils' decision to invest in infrastructure outside its jurisdictions and the ownership of the new asset, which despite council's financing may not be public.[40][41] Following the project delays, the proposed airstrip has been shelved with the budgeted money allocated to other shovel-ready projects.[42]

Jobs and economic benefitsEdit

Announcing the federal approval for the project, Environment Minister Greg Hunt stated it would contribute $930 million to the Mackay region's GDP and $2.97 billion to the Queensland economy each year for the next 60 years.[43] Hunt claimed the 4 billion tonnes of coal resource extracted over its lifetime would be worth $300 billion.[43] In court, Adani said the lifetime output of the mine would be 2.3 billion tonnes of coal.[5]


Estimates for the number of jobs to be created at the mine have varied.

In December 2014, the CEO of Adani Mining was quoted as saying the mine would create 10,000 jobs.[44] The company took out a television advertisement during the 2015 Queensland election including this claim.[45] Former Prime Minister Tony Abbott cited the 10,000 jobs figure as evidence "this mine is good for the country".[46] In Queensland's Land Court, Adani's expert witness, economist Jerome Fahrer from ACIL Allen consulting, rejected the 10,000 figure, saying the project would create less than 1,500 jobs.[47] Fahrer described the method used to produce the 10,000 figure as 'deficient'.[48] In May 2015 a complaint was lodged with the Australian Securities Exchange alleging Adani was providing misleading information about the project.[49] The CEO of Mine Operations, JJ Jakanaraj stated "We will be utilizing at least 45, 400-tonne driverless trucks. All the vehicles will be capable of automation. When we ramp up the mine, everything will be autonomous from mine to port. In our eyes, this is the mine of the future"[50]

A June 2019 estimate stated the number of ongoing, operational jobs at the mine would be "between 800 and 1,500."[51]


The Government-owned State Bank of India (SBI) has signed a Memorandum of understanding with Adani that it will offer a $1 billion loan to the project. It was widely reported that the Bank had withdrawn this offer.[52] This was rejected by the bank's Chairman.[53]

A number of major international banks have publicly ruled out financing the Carmichael Mine and Rail Project, or the Abbot Point Coal Terminal on which the Carmichael project depends. This includes more than half of the top 20 coal financing banks globally.[54] Banks currently ruling out funding include: Citigroup; JP Morgan Chase; Goldman Sachs; Deutsche Bank; Royal Bank of Scotland; HSBC; Barclays; BNP Paribas; Credit Agricole; Societe Generale; National Australia Bank. Adani spokespeople have said statements from banks they have not approached have “no bearing” on the project.[55] Standard Chartered was previously involved in providing financing to the project. Adani has ended the bank's advisory contract.[56]

Large coal projects in Australia typically engage with one or more of the ‘big four’ Australian banks in arranging or providing debt. On 5 August 2015, Commonwealth Bank announced that its advisory contract with Adani had ended,[57] nonetheless have not ruled out funding Adani and are viewed as the most likely local backer.[58] On 3 September 2015, National Australia Bank announced it would not fund the project.[59] On 28 April 2017, Westpac announced it would not fund the project.[60] Whilst the remaining bank - ANZ - has not explicitly ruled out funding, they have distanced themselves from Adani and announced a strategic shift away from Coal.[61]

Environment groups have pursued campaigns to pressure banks to rule out funding the project. Some have encouraged customers to switch bank accounts and mortgages away from the large banks funding coal projects.[62]

Financial viabilityEdit

Analysts have doubt the mine is viable given current seaborne (imported) thermal coal prices and market trends. In November 2013 Morgan Stanley valued the mine at $0 and said

“While the company expects the environmental clearance to come through in F2H14, it does not plan to spend money on developing the mine until coal prices rise from current levels”.[63]

In November 2014 Daniel Morgan, global commodities analyst at investment bank UBS, said

"On a standalone basis, the economics just don't stack up – I'm talking about costs and return on capital. You'd need a price of about $100-$110 a tonne for it to stack up".[64]

Seaborne thermal coal prices (Newcastle benchmark) have dropped from highs of around US$140/t in 2012 to around US$60/t in 2015 is due to increases in production and reduction in seaborne coal demand.[65]

In September 2015, UBS said in a briefing note "no new coal mines needed on 5+ year view" and projected prices recovering to $88/t by 2019—still below the required price for Carmichael.[65]

Tim Buckley, director of energy finance studies Australasia at the Institute of Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, argued in 2015 that the Carmichael mine is a 'stranded asset'.[66] Buckley cites a range of factors including: structural decline in seaborne coal markets; Adani's already high debt gearing; difficulty raising capital, a recent company restructure; approval delays.

Documents from Queensland Treasury released under Freedom of Information showed senior officials advising Ministers that Carmichael "is unlikely to stack up on a conventional project finance assessment".[67]

Most of the coal from the mine would be purchased by Adani in India. However, by June 2019, the costs of solar power generation in India had decreased to the point that government subsidies might be required to make coal powered generation in India economically feasible.[68] It was not yet clear whether Adani Group chairman Gautam Adani would choose to provide the $2 billion required for the project from his own pocket, or whether government subsidies would be necessary.[12]

LG has announced it will not proceed with a contract to buy coal from the mine.[69]

Proposed government subsidiesEdit

Subsidies have been supported by Australia's mining industry, which put "well over half a billion dollars into lobby groups that push coal and fossil fuels" as of 2017. [70]

The Queensland and Australian Governments have proposed various forms of assistance to the project.[citation needed] This is despite the G20 commitment to phase out "inefficient" fossil fuel subsidies.

Queensland state subsidyEdit

Queensland Government budget papers show spending of $9.5 billion between 2008 and 2014 assisting the mining industry.[71] Queensland Treasury wrote in a submission to the Commonwealth Grants Commission:

Governments face budget constraints and spending on mining-related infrastructure means less infrastructure spending in other areas, including social infrastructure such as hospitals and schools.[72]

The Newman Queensland Government initially claimed it would not support the Carmichael project. But in 2014 it proposed a "royalty holiday" or reduced royalty rates,[73] as well as proposing to "co-invest" in infrastructure.[74] The Labor Opposition criticised this as a "blank cheque".[75] Treasurer Jeff Seeney argued

“The Queensland government, like governments across the world, have always provided some major incentives and the incentive we have decided to provide relates to infrastructure rather than the traditional handing out of grants.”

During the 2015 Queensland election, the Labor Opposition promised not to fund the rail project linking the mine to the port.[76] Since Labor's election victory, the new Queensland Treasurer confirmed the government will not fund the rail line but did not rule out other forms of support such as a royalty holiday.[77] Premier Palaszczuk said in September 2015 she is "absolutely committed" to the project going ahead and called for federal funding for the rail line.[78]

Federal subsidyEdit

The 2015-16 Federal Budget outlined the $5 billion Northern Australia Infrastructure Facility "to provide large concessional loans for the construction of ports, pipelines, electricity and water infrastructure that will open our northern frontier for business."[79][80] The website states "The Commonwealth will not lend to projects that are commercially viable without Government assistance."[81] It was reported the ousted Abbott government was considering using this fund to ensure the Carmichael rail line is built.[82]

Environmental impactsEdit

Greenhouse gas emissionsEdit

According to the mine's environmental impact statement it will produce 200 million tonnes of carbon dioxide over the expected 60-year life of the mine.[83] This includes gases produced during the mining process and from emissions created from the mining and transportation of the coal. Deciding on the approval for the mine, The President of the Land Court of Queensland stated, "there will be no increase of greenhouse gas emissions if the Carmichael mine is approved. This is because alternative supply will be sourced elsewhere to meet global demand if the mine is not approved."[84]

The burning of that coal has been estimated to produce another 130 million tonnes of carbon dioxide every year.[83]

In court, Adani claimed it expected the mine to produce 2.3 billion tonnes of coal over 60 years, averaging to just under 40 million tonnes of coal a year, equivalent to 4.7 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide.[5] This is "approximately 0.53-0.56% of the carbon budget that remains after 2015 to have a likely chance of not exceeding 2 degrees warming."[5]

A Greenpeace report showed the output from Carmichael would exceed the yearly carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion in many countries.[85][failed verification]

Region/Country/Economy 2009 CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (million tonnes)[ambiguous]
Carmichael Coal Mine (peak production 60mtpa) 128
Vietnam 114
Belgium 101
Carmichael Coal Mine (production claimed in court, average 40mtpa) 85
Philippines 71
Austria 63
Qatar 57
Finland 55
Hungary 48
Denmark 47
Switzerland 42
Sweden 42
Norway 37

Vehicle convoy - environmental protestEdit

In April 2019 Bob Brown led a convoy of vehicles to protest against the proposed coal mine. He was criticised by the coal mining industry for this action.[86]

Impact of 2019-2020 bushfiresEdit

In the wake of disastrous 2019–20 Australian bushfire season, Australia's climate policies, including the Carmichael mine, have become an ongoing topic of public discussion in Australia.[87]

Local impactsEdit


Adani has applied for a water licence to extract up to 12.5 GL per year from the Belyando River for use at the Carmichael mine.[88] The mine will also use groundwater that flows to the surface during the process of “dewatering” the open cut pits and underground mines.

According to the Supplementary Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) submitted by Adani, “maximum impacts in excess of 300m are predicted” for the local water table. Beyond the mine boundary, Adani's groundwater model predicts water table levels to drop “typically between 20 and 50m” and “up to around 4m in the vicinity of the [Carmichael] river”.[89] Impacts on ground water were central to a case in the QLD Land Court, where Adani's expert witness defended inferences drawn from drilling data, against allegations that this was insufficient to determine risks of collapses underground that could impact groundwater systems.[90]

Endangered speciesEdit

The mine site area is home to a number of species, including the yakka skink, ornamental snake, and the waxy cabbage palm. Moray Downs, which is covered by the mine site, is home to the largest known community of black throated finches[91] The finches' population is in decline, and the southern subspecies is threatened, having vanished from 80% of its former range.[92] Adani Australia produced a management plan for the finch, proposing to gradually clear land around the mine and force the finches to move away.[93] The plan was heavily criticised by ecologists, who highlighted the plan to graze cattle on protected land and noted the land was tagged to be used for other projects.[94] There was also a lack of transparency and consultation with experts in the field.[95]

Bygana West Nature Refuge: endangered koala habitatEdit

The Carmichael project's open-cut mine most of the Bygana West Nature Refuge,[96] which includes two endangered regional woodland ecosystems and habitat suitable for a variety of animals including koalas.[97]

Legal challengesEdit

There have been a number of legal challenges to the project.

Native Title claimsEdit

Adani Mining Pty Ltd and Another v Adrian Burragubba, Patrick Malone and Irene White on behalf of the Wangan and Jagalingou PeopleEdit

Indigenous landholders mounted a challenge to Carmichael Mine, and called on the Queensland Government to refuse a mining lease to Adani Mining. In a major test of Australia's native title laws, the Wangan and Jagalingou people rejected the Indigenous Land Use Agreement with Adani. Adani then launched legal action (Adani Mining Pty Ltd and Another v Adrian Burragubba, Patrick Malone and Irene White on behalf of the Wangan and Jagalingou People) in the Native Title Tribunal in an attempt to enable the Queensland government to compulsorily acquire the land and push the mine ahead.[98]

Adrian Burragubba, spokesperson for the Wangan and Jagalingou people, said

"But I think there is a concern that the values that have been expressed in the Native Title processes, probably since 1997, are that mining is really equivalent to the public interest, mines must go ahead, and it's about compensation. So I think the [W&J people] don't have a lot of confidence that 'no' is really on the table, even though the legislation does provide it is on the table."[99]

The traditional owners against the development claimed the project would "devastate their ancestral lands and waters, totemic animals and plants, and cultural heritage".[100]

Environmental lawEdit

Mackay Conservation Group v Commonwealth of Australia and Adani MiningEdit

In January 2015, the Mackay Conservation Group, based in Mackay, challenged the July 2013 federal approval of the Carmichael project by Greg Hunt, Environment Minister, under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.[101] The Group was represented by the Environmental Defenders Office of NSW. The case involved three main contentions:[102]

  • That the Minister unlawfully excluded consideration of greenhouse gas emissions to emissions directly associated with the operation of the mine. The Minister did not consider the much larger emissions associated with burning the coal from the mine.
  • That the Minister failed to consider Adani's poor record of environmental management in India, including building without approvals and illegally clearing mangroves,[103] instead relying on a statement from the company that it has a good track record.
  • That the Minister did not consider "approved conservation advice" for two endangered species that would be affected by the mine, the yakka skink and the ornamental snake, as required by federal law.[104]

The Federal Court set aside the approval on the latter ground. Despite reports Federal Court "overturned" the approval,[105] the decision occurred by consent order signed by the Department of Environment and Adani.[106]

The Department is currently reassessing the proposal.[25]

Adani Mining Pty Ltd v Land Services of Coast and Country Inc.Edit

In May 2014 the Queensland Coordinator General recommended the project be approved[107] and there was a call for public comment and objections. Coast and Country, represented by Environmental Defenders Office Queensland, brought a case to the Queensland Land Court. They contended:

  1. "Adani grossly overstated to the public the number of jobs, and royalties the mine would have for Queensland;
  2. The mine, rail and port as well as the burning of coal will cause damage to the Great Barrier Reef from climate change and ocean acidification;
  3. The mine will destroy the core population of endangered Black Throated Finch and may impact Waxy Cabbage Palms, and the potatoes grown in the area too;
  4. The mine will threaten the base flow of the Carmichael River and may threaten the ancient springs estimated to be one million years old; and
  5. The project is extremely risky and unlikely to be financially viable."[108]

Australian Conservation Foundation Inc v Minister for the Environment - Emissions challenge 2016-17Edit

The Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF) made a judicial review challenge under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 which was dismissed in 2016 followed by an appeal to the Full Court of the Federal Court of Australia.[109] ACF lost the appeal in 2017. Adani Mining PTY LTD were the second respondents in the case.

The main contention was that the Minister did not consider the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on the Great Barrier Reef.

The case was dismissed because the court found that the cause and effect was complicated, the lower court stating that it was "not possible for him [the Minister] to draw firm conclusions as to the likely contribution of Adani’s action to a specific increase in global temperature" and that if the coal was stopped from the Carmichael Mine it would likely be substituted from somewhere else.[110] Dr Justine Bell-James has criticised the market substitution defence stating that it is the “only significant barrier remaining to a successful climate change case".[111] The Court ordered ACF to be part of the legal costs for Adani and the Minister. The environmental approval was approved which lasts for 99 years.[112][113]

Australian Conservation Foundation Inc v Minister for the Environment - Water challenge 2018Edit

The Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF) being represented by Environmental Defenders Office Queensland lodged a judicial review challenge in the Federal Court of the Federal Environment Ministers decision to not apply legislation regarding water.[9] The issue had previously been highlighted by environmental groups such as Lock the Gate Alliance.[114] The review challenges the Environment Minister Melissa Price's decision to waive a full environmental assessment for a pipeline that will extract up to 12.5 billion litres of water a year from the Suttor River in central Queensland. Adani notified the government that the act was a controlled act but the government decided that it was not a controlled activity under the EPBC Act and that no environmental impact assessment (EIS) was needed for it to proceed.[115][116] Under the amendments to the EPBC Act the Minister must obtain advice from an Independent Expert Scientific Committee on Coal Seam Gas and Large Coal Mining Development if an activity is likely to have a significant impact on water resources or impact on a protected ecological communities, species (such as the black-throated finch, world heritage sites, national heritage sites or protected wetlands.[117] The water trigger was added to the EPBC act in 2013 the amendment was introduced by the then Federal New England MP Tony Windsor.[118]

Criticism of legal actionEdit

Substantial controversy about federal environmental law followed the 2015 Federal Court decision to set aside the Carmichael approval (agreed by consent orders signed by the government). Government Ministers criticised the group bringing this case under federal environment law, calling them "vigilante litigants" engaged in economic "sabotage".[119]

The government is (as of 2015) seeking to change the law to prevent 'third parties’ from bringing cases where they are not directly impacted by the proposal.[119] Then Prime Minister Tony Abbott urged the business community to get behind these changes, saying "if the Adani mine does not go ahead soon, we are crazy."[120] Radio broadcaster Alan Jones, on many issues a supporter of the Liberal Government, launched a TV ad, stating:

"I may live nowhere near the Liverpool Plains or the Great Barrier Reef. But I sure as hell am concerned they are protected. ... The latest move by the Abbott government puts at risk not just our environment but our very democracy"[121]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project". Adani Mining. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  2. ^ a b c "Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project: Project Overview". Completed EIS projects. Department of State Development, Infrastructure and Planning. 9 July 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  3. ^ "Adani's new mini version of its mega mine still faces some big hurdles". 3 December 2018.
  4. ^ Long, Stephen (3 March 2017). "Adani plans to export low quality, high ash coal to India, court told". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "JOINT REPORT to the Land Court of Queensland on "Climate Change – Emissions", (2015) Adani Mining Pty Ltd (Adani) v Land Services of Coast and Country Inc & Ors" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Business Spectator news". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  7. ^ Molyneaux, L.; Wagner, L.; Foster, J. (April 2016). "Rural electrification in India: Galilee Basin coal versus decentralised renewable energy micro grids" (PDF). Renewable Energy. 89: 422–436. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2015.12.002.
  8. ^ Oliver Milman (28 July 2014). "Largest coal mine in Australia: federal government gives Carmichael go-ahead". theguardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  9. ^ a b Hasham, Nicole (4 December 2018). "Adani faces new hurdle over huge water plan in drought-ravaged Queensland". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  10. ^ "Bau Australien: Greta Thunberg fordert Siemens zur Aufgabe von Kohle-Projekt auf" (in German). ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  11. ^ Readfearn, Graham (13 January 2020). "Adani coalmine: Siemens CEO has 'empathy' for environment but refuses to quit contract". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  12. ^ a b Quiggin, John (3 June 2019). "Why would a billionaire persist with Adani when it will probably lose money?". ABC News. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  13. ^ Remeikis, Amy (7 June 2019). "Adani the elephant in the room as Al Gore and Annastacia Palaszczuk meet in Queensland". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  14. ^ "Adani mine: Australia approves controversial coal project". BBC News. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  15. ^ a b "Mine location". Adani Mining. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  16. ^ "Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project declared 'significant project'". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  17. ^ "Adani Mining Pty Ltd - Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project - Initial Advice Statement, 22 October 2010" (PDF).
  18. ^ a b c Adani (13 November 2013). "Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project SEIS Volume 2 - Mine Studies" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Coordinator-General decides on Galilee Mine". Media Statement. Department of the Premier and Cabinet. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  20. ^ a b c Ben Hagemann (29 July 2014). "Carmichael coal mine means more jobs, less water for Queensland". Australian Mining. Cirrus Media. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  21. ^ Ben Hagemann (2 September 2014). "Abbott Point dredge dumping plans on the rocks". Mining Australia. Cirrus Media. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  22. ^ a b Oliver Milman (2 September 2014). "Abbot Point port developers to ditch Great Barrier Reef seabed dumping pla". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  23. ^ "Expanding the Port of Abbot Point". Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  24. ^ "$16 billion Carmichael coal mine approval set aside over 'technical matter'". ABC News. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  25. ^ a b Milman, Oliver; Robertson, Joshua. "Coalition will take six to eight weeks to revise its Carmichael coalmine approval". the Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  26. ^ "Adani suspends two Australian coal project contractors: Report - Business Today". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  27. ^ "". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  28. ^ Hunt, Greg (28 July 2014). "Strictest conditions on Carmichael Coal Mine project" (PDF). Minister for the Environment.[permanent dead link]
  29. ^ Adani (22 October 2013). "Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project SEIS- Report for Water Balance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.
  30. ^ "". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  31. ^ "Adani, POSCO E&C sign pact to develop rail line in Australia". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  32. ^ "North Galilee Basin Rail Project". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  33. ^ a b "Adani scales back Carmichael rail link plans". Railway Gazette International. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  34. ^ "$5 Billion Northern Australia Infrastructure Facility Cash For Mines". Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  35. ^ a b "Setback for Adani as Aurizon withdraws loan request for rail line". The Guardian. 8 February 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  36. ^ Associated Press (10 January 2020). "Climate activists target Siemens over Australia coal project". Washington Post. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  37. ^ Associated Press (13 January 2020). "Germany's Siemens to fulfill Australia coal mine contract". Washington Post. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  38. ^ a b c [1]
  39. ^ [2]
  40. ^ a b [3]
  41. ^ [4]
  42. ^ [5]
  43. ^ a b "Carmichael coal mine means more jobs, less water for Queensland". Mining Australia. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  44. ^ "Complaint lodged with ASX over Adani job claims for Carmichael mine". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  45. ^ Adani Australia, retrieved 9 September 2015
  46. ^ "PM:Stopping Adani mine 'bad for the country'". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  47. ^ "Adani Carmichael mine to create 1464 jobs, not 10,000". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  48. ^ "Fact check: Will Adani's coal mine really boost employment by 10,000 jobs?". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  49. ^ "Complaint lodged with ASX over Adani job claims for Carmichael mine". World News. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  50. ^
  51. ^ Cox, Lisa (4 June 2019). "Adani jobs explained: why there are new questions over Carmichael mine". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  52. ^ "SBI to turn down Adani's $1 billion Australian loan request - sources". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  53. ^ "SBI rejects report of scrapping $1 bn loan pact with Adani". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  54. ^ "Eleven International Banks Rule Out Funding Adani's Coal Project". 2015 – via Courier Mail.
  55. ^ "Three French banks refuse to fund Adani project in Australia - The Times of India". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  56. ^ "Standard Chartered backs off Adani coal mining project". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  57. ^ "CommBank – Last bank standing on Adani?". Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  58. ^ "CommBank's climate fail | Market Forces". Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  59. ^ Saunders, Amanda; Potter, Ben (3 September 2015). "National Australia Bank rules out funding Adani's Carmichael coal mine". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  60. ^ "Westpac has ruled out lending to Adani's Carmichael coal mine after changing lending policies". Financial Review. 28 April 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  61. ^ "ANZ effectively rules out funding Adani's Carmichael coalmine". Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  62. ^ Market Forces. "Put your bank on notice". Archived from the original on 2 November 2015.
  63. ^ Morgan Stanley (1 November 2013). "Adani Enterprises Ltd - Hunkering Down; Waiting for Resolution on Adani Power" (PDF).
  64. ^ "Adani steps up Australia coal plans ahead of Modi visit". Reuters. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  65. ^ a b Shaw, Lachlan. "Thermal Coal Markets - Opportunity for Japan?" (PDF). UBS. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016.
  66. ^ Buckley, Tim (May 2015). "Galilee Coal Basin:Carmichael – A Stranded Asset?" (PDF). IEEFA.
  67. ^ "Adani's Carmichael Mine is unbankable says Queensland Treasury". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  68. ^ Remeikis, Amy (6 June 2019). "'Change is coming': Al Gore says economics will break fossil fuel dinosaurs". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  69. ^ "Adani loses LG as big customer for Carmichael mine". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  70. ^ Goodell, Jeff (14 June 2019). "The World's Most Insane Energy Project Moves Ahead". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  71. ^ "Mining the age of entitlement | The Australia Institute". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  72. ^ Queensland Treasury (July 2013). "Queensland Treasury Response to Commonwealth Grants Commission. Response to Terms of Reference for Commonwealth Grants Commission 2015 Methodology Review". Archived from the original on 12 April 2015.
  73. ^ Taylor, Lenore; Editor, Political. "Hey, big spender: why Campbell Newman loves his election hard-hat". the Guardian. Retrieved 9 September 2015.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  74. ^ "Gautam Adani says Queensland to co-invest in Australia project, govt defends SBI loan - Firstpost". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  75. ^ "Rail line deal could cost taxpayers $1 billion-plus « Curtis Pitt MP ::: State Member for Mulgrave". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  76. ^ "Adani underlines commitment to Galilee Basin coal mine plans". ABC News. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  77. ^ "Queensland Labor backs Adani's Carmichael coal project". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  78. ^ "State won't say why it wants federal funding for coal project". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  79. ^ "Government offers concessional loans for northern development". ABC Rural. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  80. ^ "Federal budget 2015: Northern Australia to receive $5 billion in infrastructure loans". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  81. ^ "Frequently asked questions | Northern Australia Infrastructure Facility". Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  82. ^ "Abbott government hints Adani could be considered for rail funding". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  83. ^ a b Lenore Taylor (14 January 2015). "Federal court asked to overturn Adani mine approval due to impact on Great Barrier Reef". Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  84. ^ "Adani Mining Pty Ltd v Land Services of Coast and Country Inc & Ors [2015] QLC 48" (PDF). LAND COURT OF QUEENSLAND. 15 December 2015. p. 103.
  85. ^ "Cooking the climate: Wrecking the reef". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  86. ^ Queensland Mining and Energy Bulletin (April 2019): Industry slams ‘hypocrisy’ of anti mining convoy
  87. ^ Crowther, Michelle (10 January 2020). "Can the catastrophic fires bring some sanity to Australian climate politics?". Vox. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  88. ^ Adani. "SEIS Appendix 20 - Application to take water from the Belyando River" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.
  89. ^ "Supplementary EIS Documents". Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  90. ^ "Groundwater dominates discussion at Adani court case". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  91. ^ "Environment - Queensland's Galilee Basin". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  92. ^ "National recovery plan for the Black-throated finch southern subspecies (Poephila cincta cincta)" (PDF). Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts - website. Australian Government: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  93. ^ "Black-throated Finch Management Plan C" (PDF). Adani Mining. November 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  94. ^ Smee, Ben (22 January 2019). "Adani: 2,000 hectares of black-throated finch habitat removed from conservation plans". Guardian Online. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  95. ^ Rebgetz, Louisa (14 July 2017). "Adani mine 'spinning the roulette wheel' on survival of black-throated finch, researchers say". ABC News. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  96. ^ Queensland Government Information Service: maps etc
  97. ^ "The Carmichael Mine-strosity". Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  98. ^ "Native title battle shaping up over Adani coal mine". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  99. ^ "Indigenous people reject $16 billion Qld coal mine". ABC News. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  100. ^ "Native title battle shaping up over Adani coal mine". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  101. ^ Branco, Jorge (15 January 2015). "Mackay Conservation Group challenges Adani mine in Federal Court". The Age. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  102. ^ "Mackay Conservation Group v Commonwealth of Australia and Adani Mining". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  103. ^ Greenpeace (10 March 2014). "Research Briefing: Adani's record of environmental destruction and non-compliance with regulations" (PDF).
  104. ^ "ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACT 1999 - SECT 139 Requirements for decisions about threatened species and endangered communities". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  105. ^ "Federal Court overturns approval of Adani Carmichael coal mine in Queensland". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  106. ^ "Federal Court intervenes over Adani 'lawfare'". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  107. ^ "Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Coordinator General's Report" (PDF). May 2014.
  108. ^ "LATEST ON THE CASE: Adani Carmichael coal mine objection | Edo QLD". Archived from the original on 13 August 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  109. ^ Hepburn, Samantha. "Why aren't Australia's environment laws preventing widespread land clearing?". The Conversation. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  110. ^ "Australian Conservation Foundation Incorporated v Minister for the Environment [2016] FCA 1042".
  111. ^ Bell-James, Justine. "Carmichael mine jumps another legal hurdle, but litigants are making headway". The Conversation. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  112. ^ "Federal Court dismisses challenge to the Environment Minister's decision to approve Carmichael Coal Mine".
  113. ^ "Environmental Law Australia | Carmichael Coal Mine cases in the Federal Court". Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  114. ^ Hannam, Peter (18 September 2018). "'Absolute disgrace': Adani pipeline plan won't activate water trigger". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  115. ^ "Explainer: What is the 'water trigger'?". Environmental Defenders Office Queensland (EDO Qld). Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  116. ^ Cox, Lisa (4 December 2018). "Court challenge launched over minister's 'flawed' decision on Adani water trigger". the Guardian. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  117. ^ "Adani coal mine water licence faces Federal Court challenge over move to bypass EIS". ABC News. 4 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  118. ^ Herbert, Lisa (20 June 2013). "Farmers say water trigger amendment gives confidence". ABC Rural. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  119. ^ a b "18 August 2015—Government acts to protect jobs from vigilante litigants". Archived from the original on 23 August 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  120. ^ "Abbott Tells Business: Forget Talk, Time to Act on Trade Pact and Adani".
  121. ^ "Alan Jones fronts ad campaign opposing Abbott government plan". Retrieved 10 September 2015.