Carbohydrate chemistry

Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.

MonosaccharidesEdit

Individual saccharide residues are termed monosaccharides.

Carbohydrate synthesisEdit

Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural carbohydrate structures. This can include the synthesis of monosaccharide residues or structures containing more than one monosaccharide, known as oligosaccharides.

Glycosidic bond formationEdit

Protecting groupsEdit

OligosaccharidesEdit

Reactions of carbohydratesEdit

Carbohydrates are reactants in many organic reactions. For example:

Functions of carbohydratesEdit

Carbohydrates have four major functions within the body:

  1. Energy supply, particularly for the brain in the form of glucose
  2. Avoiding the breakdown of amino acids for energy
  3. Avoiding ketosis from the breakdown of fatty acids
  4. Cellular and protein recognition


Energy supply, particularly for the brain in the form of glucoseEdit

Avoiding the breakdown of amino acids for energyEdit

Avoiding ketosis from the breakdown of fatty acidsEdit

Cellular and protein recognitionEdit

Glycoprotein hormones may be removed by the liver from the bloodstream when the passage of time causes the breaking-off of carbohydrates from the glycoproteins.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

Carbohydrate structureEdit

Carbohydrate function and biologyEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit