This article does not cite any sources. (January 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.
Individual saccharide residues are termed monosaccharides.
Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural carbohydrate structures. This can include the synthesis of monosaccharide residues or structures containing more than one monosaccharide, known as oligosaccharides.
Glycosidic bond formationEdit
Reactions of carbohydratesEdit
Carbohydrates are reactants in many organic reactions. For example:
Functions of carbohydratesEdit
Carbohydrates have four major functions within the body:
- Energy supply, particularly for the brain in the form of glucose
- Avoiding the breakdown of amino acids for energy
- Avoiding ketosis from the breakdown of fatty acids
- Cellular and protein recognition
Energy supply, particularly for the brain in the form of glucoseEdit
Avoiding the breakdown of amino acids for energyEdit
Avoiding ketosis from the breakdown of fatty acidsEdit
Cellular and protein recognitionEdit
- Anomeric effect
- Carbohydrate conformation
- Glycosidic bond