- For the main belt asteroid, see 1077 Campanula. For the racehorse, see Campanula (horse). The hydrozoan genus Campanula is usually included in Campanularia today.
Campanula (//) is one of several genera in the family Campanulaceae with the common name bellflower. It takes both its common and its scientific name from its bell-shaped flowers—campanula is Latin for "little bell".
|Campanula persicifolia near Tehumardi, Saaremaa, Estonia.|
The genus includes over 500 species and several subspecies, distributed across the temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest diversity in the Mediterranean region east to the Caucasus. The range also extends into mountains in tropical regions of Asia and Africa.
The species include annual, biennial and perennial plants, and vary in habit from dwarf arctic and alpine species under 5 cm high, to large temperate grassland and woodland species growing to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) tall.
The leaves are alternate and often vary in shape on a single plant, with larger, broader leaves at the base of the stem and smaller, narrower leaves higher up; the leaf margin may be either entire or serrated (sometimes both on the same plant). Many species contain white latex in the leaves and stems.
The flowers are produced in panicles (sometimes solitary), and have a five-lobed corolla, typically large (2–5 cm or more long), mostly blue to purple, sometimes white or pink. Below the corolla, 5 leaf-like sepals form the calyx. Some species have a small additional leaf-like growth termed an "appendage" between each sepal, and the presence or absence, relative size, and attitude of the appendage is often used to distinguish between closely related species.
Campanula species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Common Pug (recorded on Harebell), Dot Moth, Ingrailed Clay (recorded on Harebell), Lime-speck Pug and Mouse Moth.
Cultivation and usesEdit
Well-known species include the northern temperate Campanula rotundifolia, commonly known as harebell in England and bluebell in Scotland and Ireland (though it is not closely related to the true bluebells), and the southern European Campanula medium, commonly known as Canterbury bells (a popular garden plant in the United Kingdom). As well as several species occurring naturally in the wild in northern Europe, there are many cultivated garden species.
The species Campanula rapunculus, commonly known as rampion bellflower, rampion, or rover bellflower, is a biennial vegetable which was once widely grown in Europe for its spinach-like leaves and radish-like roots. The Brothers Grimm's tale Rapunzel took its name from this plant.
The classification of some Campanulaceae genera as either part of Campanula or separate genera can vary by system, including Azorina, Campanulastrum, Canarina, Edraianthus, Musschia, Ostrowskia, and Platycodon. Some genera previously not segregated from Campanula currently are segregated in some systems, including Annaea, Gadellia, and Theodorovia. Hemisphaera was formerly Campanula, subsect. Scapiflorae, and Neocodon was Campanula sect. Rapunculus.
There are 473, including:
- Campanula alliariifolia – Cornish bellflower
- Campanula alaskana
- Campanula alpina
- Campanula americana – American bellflower
- Campanula angustiflora – Eastwood's bellflower
- Campanula balfourii – Socotra bellflower
- Campanula barbata – Bearded bellflower
- Campanula californica – swamp harebell
- Campanula carpatica – Carpathian bellflower
- Campanula cervicaria – bristly bellflower
- Campanula cochleariifolia – fairies' thimbles
- Campanula collina – blue dwarf bellflower
- Campanula divaricata – Appalachian bellflower
- Campanula exigua – chaparral bellflower
- Campanula garganica – Adriatic bellflower
- Campanula gelida
- Campanula glomerata – clustered bellflower
- Campanula griffinii – Griffin's bellflower
- Campanula isophylla – Italian bellflower
- Campanula lactiflora – milky bellflower
- Campanula lanata
- Campanula latifolia – wide-leaved bellflower
- Campanula latiloba – great bellflower
- Campanula medium – Canterbury bells
- Campanula patula – spreading bellflower
- Campanula persicifolia – peach-leaved bellflower
- Campanula piperi – Piper's bellflower
- Campanula portenschlagiana – Dalmatian or wall bellflower
- Campanula poscharskyana – Serbian bellflower
- Campanula primulifolia – Spanish bellflower
- Campanula pyramidalis – chimney bellflower
- Campanula raineri – Rainer's bellflower
- Campanula rapunculoides – creeping bellflower
- Campanula rapunculus – rampion bellflower
- Campanula rotundifolia – harebell, bluebell
- Campanula scabrella – rough bellflower
- Campanula scheuchzeri
- Campanula scouleri – Scouler's or pale bellflower
- Campanula sharsmithiae – Sharsmith's or Mt. Hamilton bellflower
- Campanula shetleri – Castle Crags bellflower
- Campanula takesimana – Korean bellflower
- Campanula trachelium – nettle-leaved bellflower
- Campanula uniflora – arctic bellflower
- Campanula wilkinsiana – Wilkin's bellflower
Formerly placed hereEdit
- Adenophora gmelinii (Spreng.) Fisch. (as C. coronopifolia Schult. or C. gmelinii Spreng.)
- Adenophora khasiana (Hook.f. & Thomson) Collett & Hemsl. (as C. khasiana Hook.f. & Thomson)
- Adenophora liliifolia (L.) Besser (as C. liliifolia L.)
- Adenophora triphylla (Thunb.) A.DC. (as C. tetraphylla Thunb. or C. triphylla Thunb.)
- Azorina vidalii (H.C.Watson) Feer (as C. vidalii H.C.Watson)
- Borago pygmaea (DC.) Chater & Greuter (as C. pygmaea DC.)
- Legousia pentagonia (L.) Druce (as C. pentagonia L.)
- Legousia speculum-veneris (L.) Durande ex Vill. (as C. speculum-veneris L.)
- Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (as C. glauca Thunb. or C. grandiflora Jacq.)
- Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. (as C. perfoliata L.)
- Wahlenbergia linarioides (Lam.) A.DC. (as C. linarioides Lam.)
- Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A.DC. C. gracilis G.Forst. or C. marginata Thunb.)
- Wahlenbergia undulata (L.f.) A.DC. (as C. undulata L.f.)
- "Genus: Campanula L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-01-29. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2011-02-03.
- lectorype designated by Britton & Brown, Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States (ed. 2) 3: 294 (1913)
- "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
- Altervista Flora Italiana, Genere: Campanula - Famiglia: Campanulaceae
- Flora of China, v 19 p 530, 风铃草属 feng ling cao shu, Campanula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 163. 1753.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Campanula 'Misty Dawn'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Campanula 'Kent Belle'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Rampion". Encyclopedia Americana.
- "Burton Agnes Hall - Campanula Collection". www.burtonagnes.com. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- "Home". Bellflower Nursery. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- Tatyana V. Shulkina, John F. Gaskin and W. M. M. Eddie, "Morphological Studies toward an Improved Classification of Campanulaceae s. str.," Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 90.4 (2003), pp. 578, 583.
- "GRIN Species Records of Campanula". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2011-02-03.
- Structure and biosynthesis of anthocyanins in flowers of Campanula. Kirsten Brandt, Tadao Kondo, Hideki Aoki and Toshio Goto, Phytochemistry, 29 April 1993, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 209–212, doi:10.1016/0031-9422(93)85424-P
- Fitter, R; A Fitter (1974). The Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins.