A calorie deficit (British English: calorific deficit) is any shortage in the number of calories consumed relative to the number of calories needed for maintenance of current body weight (energy homeostasis).

A deficit can be created by decreasing calories consumed by lower food intake, such as by swapping high-calorie foods for lower calorie options or by reducing portion sizes.[1] A deficit can also be created by increasing output (burning calories) without a corresponding increase in input. Increased output is created by increasing physical activity,[2] from increased caloric requirements necessary to heal an injury,[3] or from growth.[4] There are also some substances, including caffeine, which can create a small (3-5%)[5] increase in caloric expenditure, via a variety of pathways that include increasing physical activity levels and increasing thermogenesis (heat output), and/or by reducing caloric input via appetite suppression.[6][7] Drugs and herbal treatments creating a more extreme metabolic effect exist; however, they cause extreme increases of heart rate and thermogenesis that can cause death in even very healthy and athletic individuals, and these drugs are not widely sold.[7][8]

As the calories required for energy homeostasis decreases as the organism's mass decreases, if a moderate deficit is maintained eventually a new (lower) weight will be reached and maintained, and the organism will no longer be at caloric deficit.[2] A permanent severe deficit, on the other hand, which contains too few calories to maintain a healthy weight level, will eventually result in starvation and death.

To reduce 1 kg (2.2 lbs) of weight, about 7000 kcal deficit is required.[9][10]

How to calculate a calorie deficit? edit

Calculating a calorie deficit can be quite simple. Start by finding your basal metabolic rate (BMR), which is the amount of calories your body burns at rest. There are several formulas to help you calculate your BMR based on your age, gender, weight, and height. Add the estimated number of calories you burn during physical activity to your BMR. You can use various online calculators to help you estimate caloric expenditure depending on the type of activity and duration. Then subtract the number of calories you want to take in per day from this total caloric expenditure. It is usually recommended to choose a caloric deficit between 500 and 1000 calories per day for mild to moderate weight loss. This will achieve an average weight loss of about 0.5 to 1 kg per week.[11]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Counting calories: Get back to weight-loss basics". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b Redman, LM; Heilbronn, LK; Martin, CK; de Jonge, L; Williamson, DA; Delany, JP; Ravussin, E (February 9, 2009). "Metabolic and Behavioral Compensations in Response to Caloric Restriction: Implications for the Maintenance of Weight Loss". PLOS ONE. 4 (2): e4377. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.4377R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004377. PMC 2634841. PMID 19198647.
  3. ^ "Nutrition for Injury Recovery: Part 3". Precision Nutrition. 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  4. ^ "CALORIC NEEDS". www.utmb.edu. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 2015-07-09.
  5. ^ Dulloo, A. G.; Geissler, C. A.; Horton, T.; Collins, A.; Miller, D. S. (1989-01-01). "Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 49 (1): 44–50. doi:10.1093/ajcn/49.1.44. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 2912010.
  6. ^ Schrader, Patrick; Panek, Leah M.; Temple, Jennifer L. (2013). "Acute and chronic caffeine administration increases physical activity in sedentary adults". Nutrition Research. Elsevier BV. 33 (6): 457–463. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2013.04.003. ISSN 0271-5317. PMID 23746561.
  7. ^ a b "Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss — Health Professional Fact Sheet". ods.od.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-09.
  8. ^ Lu, Yuan-qiang; Jiang, Jiu-kun; Huang, Wei-dong (March 2011). "Clinical features and treatment in patients with acute 2,4-dinitrophenol poisoning". Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 12 (3): 189–192. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000265. ISSN 1673-1581. PMC 3048933. PMID 21370503.
  9. ^ Joslin, Elliott Proctor; Kahn, C. Ronald (2005-01-01). Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus: Edited by C. Ronald Kahn ... [et Al.]. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781727969.
  10. ^ Shah, Khushali (April 4, 2021). "The Ultimate Calorie Deficit Guide For Weight Loss - Healthy And Khush". healthyandkhush.com. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  11. ^ Hrasekvlusku.cz. "Kalorický deficit: Klíč k úspěšnému hubnutí – vše, co musíte vědět".