List of Maya gods and supernatural beings
Name list of Deities playing a role in the Classic (200–1000 CE), Post-Classic (1000–1539 CE) and Contact Period (1511–1697) Maya religion. The names are mainly taken from the Books of Chilam Balam, Lacandon ethnography, the Madrid Codex, the work of Diego de Landa, and the Popol Vuh. Depending on the source, most names are either Yucatec or Kʼicheʼ. The Classic Period names (belonging to the Classic Maya language) are only rarely known with certainty.
Maya mythological beingsEdit
List Source KeyEdit
- CHB – Books of Chilam Balam
- LAC – Lacandon ethnography
- L – de Landa
- M — Madrid Codex
- PV – the Popol Vuh.
Note: The corresponding deities in the revised Schellhas-Zimmermann-Taube list of codical deities, have been indicated between the square brackets.
The god of the sky and wood.
God of bees.
God of death.
The old god of the interior of the earth and of thunder, sky-carrier, fourfold.
The jaguar god of the underworld. Also any of a group of jaguar gods who protected people and communities.
A sky god. One of the creator and destroyer deities who participated in the last two attempts at creating humanity.
Ah Bolon Dzacab "Innumerable Generations", the lightning god, patron of the harvest and the seeds.
A group of nine underworld gods.
"Nine Strides", mentioned in the Books of Chilam Balam and in Classic inscriptions; functions unknown.
Buluc Chabtan [ god F ]Edit
The god of war, violence, sacrifice and gambling.
A god of mountains and earthquakes. He was a son of Vucub Caquix and Chimalmat.
A creator god.
Can Tzicnal *L*Edit
The god of storms and rain, enemy of Camazotz and wields a lightning axe.
Chaac Uayab Xoc *L*Edit
A fish god and the patron deity of fishermen.
A group of four Chorti rain gods who live in lakes and make rain clouds from the water in them. As with the Bacabs, each of the rain gods was associated with a cardinal direction. Chiccan was also the name of a day in the Tzolkin cycle of the calendar.
A god of medicine and healing.
Chimalmat *PV* warriorEdit
A giant who was, by Vucub Caquix, the mother of Cabrakan and Zipacna.
The main god of homosexual relationships.
A god of death who lived in Metnal.
Goddess of the bees.
Colop U Uichkin *RITUAL OF THE BACABS*Edit
An eclipse deity.
The god of thunder. Brother of Cakulha.
Ek Chuaj, the "black war chief" was the patron god of warriors and merchants. He was depicted carrying a bag over his shoulder. In art, he was a dark-skinned man with circles around his eyes, a scorpion tail and dangling lower lip.
GI, GII, GIIIEdit
A feathered snake god and creator. The depiction of the feathered serpent deity is present in other cultures of Mesoamerica. Gukumatz of the Kʼicheʼ Maya is closely related to the god Kukulkan of Yucatán and to Quetzalcoatl of the Aztec.
Patron deity of the Lacandon.
Bacab of the east.
Bacab of the south.
A god of death and the underworld.
"One-Death", a lord of the underworld (Xibalba) who, along with Vucub-Came "Seven-Death", killed Hun Hunahpu. They were defeated by the latter's sons the Hero Twins.
The father of the Maya Hero Twins Ixbalanque and Hun-Ahpu by a virgin. Beheaded in Xibalba, the underworld, by the rulers of Xibalba, Hun Came and Vucub Caquix.
"Sole God", identical with Itzamna as the highest Yucatec god; or a more abstract upper god. *Current research now indicates this 'Maya' symbol is not of Maya origin and rather an invention by a Catholic missionary to more easily introduce one-god concept into the Maya culture.
One of the Maya Hero Twins.
One of the thirteen creator gods who helped create humanity.
Hunahpu Utiu *PV*Edit
One of the thirteen creator gods who helped to create humanity.
"One-Maize", a reading of the name glyph of the Classic Period Tonsured Maize God
A now-obsolete reading of the name glyph of the Classic Period Tonsured Maize God
"One-Leg", one of three lightning gods together called "Heart of the Sky", and acting as world creators.
- The founder of maize and cacao, as well as writing, calendars, and medicine. Once mentioned as the father of the Bacabs.
- A patron god of the Lacandon people.
- Ixbalanque > Xbalanque
- Ixchel *L* [goddess O]
- Jaguar goddess of midwifery and medicine.
- Ixmucane *PV*
- One of the thirteen creator gods who helped create humanity, grandmother of the Hero Twins.
- Ixpiyacoc *PV*
- A creator god who helped create humanity.
- Ixtab *L*
- Goddess of suicide, represented with a rope around her neck.
mountain god of the Postclassic Kʼicheʼ Maya
Assumed to have been the Classic name of God K (Bolon Dzacab). Title attested for Itzamna, Uaxac Yol, and Amaite Ku; family name; probably not meaning "food", but "powerful".
The solar deity.
The most commonly depicted god of death.
"Feathered Serpent". Although heavily Mexicanised, Kukulkan has his origins among the Maya of the Classic Period, when he was known as Waxaklahun Ubah Kan (/waʃaklaˈχuːn uːˈɓaχ kän/), the War Serpent, and he has been identified as the Postclassic version of the Vision Serpent of Classic Maya art.
A title of respect meaning "Grandfather" and applied to a number of different Maya deities including earth spirits, mountain spirits, and the four Bacabs.
The god of war.
A creator-destroyer deity, the brother of the death god Kisin (or possibly another earthquake god also known as Kisin). He is the sworn enemy of the world serpent Hapikern and it is said that, in the end of days, he will destroy Hapikern by wrapping him around himself to smother him. In some versions, this will destroy life on Earth. He is related, in some stories, to Usukan, Uyitzin, Yantho and Hapikern, all of whom wish ill to human beings. Brother of Xamaniqinqu, the patron god of travelers and merchants.
One of the second set of creator gods.
Feathered Snake god and creator. The depiction of the feathered serpent deity is present in other cultures of Mesoamerica. Qʼuqʼumatz of the Kʼicheʼ Maya is closely related to the god Kukulkan of Yucatán and to Quetzalcoatl of the Aztecs.
A hunting god of the Yucatec Maya arguably corresponding, in the Classic period, to an elderly human with deer ears and antlers.
A sky god and one of the creator deities who participated in all three attempts at creating humanity.
A patron god of the Kʼicheʼ, to whom a great temple was erected at the Kʼicheʼ capital Qʼumarkaj.
Legendary ancestral deity, Chiapas.
A bird being, whose wife is Chimalmat and whose sons are the demonic giants Cabrakan and Zipacna.
The god of travelers and merchants, who gave offerings to him on the side of roads while traveling.
Xbalanque *PV* [god CH]Edit
One of the Hero or War Twins and companion to Hunahpu.
A mountain god of the Postclassic Manche Chʼol.
Xmucane and Xpiayoc *PV*Edit
A creator god couple which helped create the first humans. They are also the parents of Hun Hunahpu and Vucub Hunahpu. They were called Grandmother of Day, Grandmother of Light and Bearer twice over, begetter twice over and given the titles midwife and matchmaker.
She was the daughter of Cuchumaquic, one of the lords of the underworld, Xibalba. She is noted for being the mother of the Hero Twins, Hunahpu and Xbalanque and is sometimes considered to be the Maya goddess associated with the waning moon.
One of four Mopan "Grandfathers" of the earth and chief lightning god.
An important rain god at Copán and Quiriguá in the southern Maya area.
God of death, disease, and the underworld.
God of the woods, of wild nature, and of the hunt; invoked before carving out a maize field from the wilderness.
Zac Cimi *L*Edit
The Bacab of the west.
A demonic personification of the earth crust.
- Taube 1992
- "Religion-Mayan Gods Deities". www.maya-archaeology.org.
- Braswell, Geoffrey E. (2003). The Maya and Teotihuacan: Reinterpreting Early Classic Interaction. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. p. 286. ISBN 0-292-70587-5. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- Thompson 1938, p. 594.
- Wanyerka August 2009, p. 182.
- Gutiérrez González 2012, p. 1061.
- Gutiérrez González, Ma. Eugenia (2012). B. Arroyo, L. Paiz, and H. Mejía (eds.). "Yopaat, un dios maya de la tormenta en Quiriguá" (PDF). Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes, Instituto de Antropología e Historia and Asociación Tikal. XXV (2011): 1061–1073. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2014-10-20.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
- Knowlton, Timothy W., Maya Creation Myths: Words and Worlds of the Chilam Balam. University Press of Colorado, Boulder 2010.
- Taube, Karl, The Major Gods of Ancient Yucatán. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington 1992.
- Mark, Joshua, The Mayan Pantheon: The many gods of the Maya . 2012
- Thompson, J. Eric S. (October–December 1938). "Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Reports on the Chol Mayas". American Anthropologist. New Series. Wiley on behalf of the American Anthropological Association. 40 (4 (Part 1)): 584–604. doi:10.1525/aa.1938.40.4.02a00040. JSTOR 661615. (subscription required)
- Thompson, J. Eric S. Maya History and Religion. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman 1970.
- Wanyerka, Phillip Julius (August 2009). "Classic Maya Political Organization: Epigraphic Evidence of Hierarchical Organization in the Southern Maya Mountains Region of Belize" (PDF). Carbondale, Illinois, US: Southern Illinois University. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "Hunab Ku: The FAKE Maya god…". 12 April 2017.