List of Maya gods and supernatural beings

  (Redirected from Cabracan)

Name list of Deities playing a role in the Classic (200–1000 CE), Post-Classic (1000–1539 CE) and Contact Period (1511–1697) Maya religion. The names are mainly taken from the Books of Chilam Balam, Lacandon ethnography, the Madrid Codex, the work of Diego de Landa, and the Popol Vuh. Depending on the source, most names are either Yucatec or Kʼicheʼ. The Classic Period names (belonging to the Classic Maya language) are only rarely known with certainty.

Maya mythological beingsEdit

List Source KeyEdit

  • CHB – Books of Chilam Balam
  • LAC – Lacandon ethnography
  • L – de Landa
  • M — Madrid Codex
  • PV – the Popol Vuh.

Note: The corresponding deities in the revised Schellhas-Zimmermann-Taube list of codical deities, have been indicated between the square brackets.[1]

AEdit

AlomEdit

The god of the sky and wood.

Ah-Muzen-CabEdit

God of bees.

Ah puchEdit

God of death.

BEdit

Bacab *L* [ god N ]Edit

The old god of the interior of the earth and of thunder, sky-carrier, fourfold.

BahlamEdit

The jaguar god of the underworld.[2] Also any of a group of jaguar gods who protected people and communities.

Bitol pv*Edit

A sky god. One of the creator and destroyer deities who participated in the last two attempts at creating humanity.

Bolon Tzʼakab (Dzacab) *L* [ god K ]Edit

Ah Bolon Dzacab "Innumerable Generations", the lightning god, patron of the harvest and the seeds.

Bolontiku *CHB*Edit

A group of nine underworld gods.

Bolon YokteʼEdit

"Nine Strides", mentioned in the Books of Chilam Balam and in Classic inscriptions; functions unknown.

Buluc Chabtan [ god F ]Edit

The god of war, violence, sacrifice and gambling.

CEdit

CabrakanEdit

A god of mountains and earthquakes. He was a son of Vucub Caquix and Chimalmat.

Cacoch *LAC*Edit

A creator god.

Camazotz *PV*Edit

Bat god.

Can Tzicnal *L*Edit

The Bacab of the north, associated with the color white, and the Muluc years. Son of Itzamna and Ixchel.

Chaac *L*Edit

The god of storms and rain, enemy of Camazotz and wields a lightning axe.

Chaac Uayab Xoc *L*Edit

A fish god and the patron deity of fishermen.

ChiccanEdit

A group of four Chorti rain gods who live in lakes and make rain clouds from the water in them. As with the Bacabs, each of the rain gods was associated with a cardinal direction. Chiccan was also the name of a day in the Tzolkin cycle of the calendar.

Cit-Bolon-TumEdit

A god of medicine and healing.

Chimalmat *PV* warriorEdit

A giant who was, by Vucub Caquix, the mother of Cabrakan and Zipacna.

ChinEdit

The main god of homosexual relationships.

CizinEdit

A god of death who lived in Metnal.

Colel CabEdit

Goddess of the bees.

Colop U Uichkin *RITUAL OF THE BACABS*Edit

An eclipse deity.

CoyopaEdit

The god of thunder. Brother of Cakulha.

EEdit

Ek Chuaj *M* (God M)Edit

Ek Chuaj, the "black war chief" was the patron god of warriors and merchants. He was depicted carrying a bag over his shoulder. In art, he was a dark-skinned man with circles around his eyes, a scorpion tail and dangling lower lip.

GEdit

GI, GII, GIIIEdit

The three patron deities of the Palenque kingdom, made up of a sea deity with a shell ear, GII a baby lightning god (god K), and GIII the jaguar god of fire, also patron of the number seven.

Gukumatz > Qʼuqʼumatz *PV*Edit

A feathered snake god and creator. The depiction of the feathered serpent deity is present in other cultures of Mesoamerica. Gukumatz of the Kʼicheʼ Maya is closely related to the god Kukulkan of Yucatán and to Quetzalcoatl of the Aztec.

HEdit

Hachäkʼyum *LAC*Edit

Patron deity of the Lacandon.

Hobnil *L*Edit

Bacab of the east.

Hozanek *L*Edit

Bacab of the south.

Hum HauEdit

A god of death and the underworld.

Hun-Batz *PV*Edit

"One Howler Monkey", one of two stepbrothers of the Hero Twins, one of the Howler Monkey Gods and patron of the arts.

Hun-Came *PV*Edit

"One-Death", a lord of the underworld (Xibalba) who, along with Vucub-Came "Seven-Death", killed Hun Hunahpu. They were defeated by the latter's sons the Hero Twins.

Hun-Chowen *PV*Edit

One of the two stepbrothers of the Hero Twins, one of the Howler Monkey Gods and patron of the arts.

Hun-Hunahpu *PV*Edit

The father of the Maya Hero Twins Ixbalanque and Hun-Ahpu by a virgin. Beheaded in Xibalba, the underworld, by the rulers of Xibalba, Hun Came and Vucub Caquix.

Hunab KuEdit

"Sole God", identical with Itzamna as the highest Yucatec god; or a more abstract upper god. *Current research now indicates this 'Maya' symbol is not of Maya origin and rather an invention by a Catholic missionary to more easily introduce one-god concept into the Maya culture.

Hun-Ahpu *PV*Edit

One of the Maya Hero Twins.

Hunahpu-Gutch *PV*Edit

One of the thirteen creator gods who helped create humanity.

Hunahpu Utiu *PV*Edit

One of the thirteen creator gods who helped to create humanity.

Hun-IximEdit

"One-Maize", a reading of the name glyph of the Classic Period Tonsured Maize God

Hun-nal-yeEdit

A now-obsolete reading of the name glyph of the Classic Period Tonsured Maize God

Huracan *PV*Edit

"One-Leg", one of three lightning gods together called "Heart of the Sky", and acting as world creators.

IEdit

Itzamna
The founder of maize and cacao, as well as writing, calendars, and medicine. Once mentioned as the father of the Bacabs.
Itzananohkʼu
A patron god of the Lacandon people.
Ixbalanque > Xbalanque
Ixchel *L* [goddess O]
Jaguar goddess of midwifery and medicine.
Ixmucane *PV*
One of the thirteen creator gods who helped create humanity, grandmother of the Hero Twins.
Ixpiyacoc *PV*
A creator god who helped create humanity.
Ixtab *L*
Goddess of suicide, represented with a rope around her neck.

JEdit

Jacawitz *PV*Edit

mountain god of the Postclassic Kʼicheʼ Maya

KEdit

Kʼawiil (Kawil, Kauil)Edit

Assumed to have been the Classic name of God K (Bolon Dzacab). Title attested for Itzamna, Uaxac Yol, and Amaite Ku; family name; probably not meaning "food", but "powerful".

K'inich AhauEdit

The solar deity.

Kisin (Cisin)Edit

The most commonly depicted god of death.

KukulkanEdit

"Feathered Serpent". Although heavily Mexicanised, Kukulkan has his origins among the Maya of the Classic Period, when he was known as Waxaklahun Ubah Kan (/waʃaklaˈχuːn uːˈɓaχ kän/), the War Serpent, and he has been identified as the Postclassic version of the Vision Serpent of Classic Maya art.

MEdit

MamEdit

A title of respect meaning "Grandfather" and applied to a number of different Maya deities including earth spirits, mountain spirits, and the four Bacabs.

MaximonEdit

A god of travelers, merchants, medicine men/women, mischief and fertility, later conflated with Saint Simon and in modern times part of the celebrations surrounding Holy Week.

NEdit

NakonEdit

The god of war.

NohochacyumEdit

A creator-destroyer deity, the brother of the death god Kisin (or possibly another earthquake god also known as Kisin). He is the sworn enemy of the world serpent Hapikern and it is said that, in the end of days, he will destroy Hapikern by wrapping him around himself to smother him. In some versions, this will destroy life on Earth. He is related, in some stories, to Usukan, Uyitzin, Yantho and Hapikern, all of whom wish ill to human beings. Brother of Xamaniqinqu, the patron god of travelers and merchants.

QEdit

Qaholom *PV*Edit

One of the second set of creator gods.

Qʼuqʼumatz *PV*Edit

Feathered Snake god and creator. The depiction of the feathered serpent deity is present in other cultures of Mesoamerica. Qʼuqʼumatz of the Kʼicheʼ Maya is closely related to the god Kukulkan of Yucatán and to Quetzalcoatl of the Aztecs.

SEdit

SipEdit

A hunting god of the Yucatec Maya arguably corresponding, in the Classic period, to an elderly human with deer ears and antlers.[3]

TEdit

Tepeu *PVEdit

A sky god and one of the creator deities who participated in all three attempts at creating humanity.

Tohil *PV*Edit

A patron god of the Kʼicheʼ, to whom a great temple was erected at the Kʼicheʼ capital Qʼumarkaj.

VEdit

VatanchuEdit

"Straight God", a mountain god of the Postclassic Manche Chʼol.[4]

VotanEdit

Legendary ancestral deity, Chiapas.

Vucub-Caquix *PV*Edit

A bird being, whose wife is Chimalmat and whose sons are the demonic giants Cabrakan and Zipacna.

XEdit

Xaman EkEdit

The god of travelers and merchants, who gave offerings to him on the side of roads while traveling.

Xbalanque *PV* [god CH]Edit

One of the Hero or War Twins and companion to Hunahpu.

XcarruchanEdit

A mountain god of the Postclassic Manche Chʼol.[5]

Xmucane and Xpiayoc *PV*Edit

A creator god couple which helped create the first humans. They are also the parents of Hun Hunahpu and Vucub Hunahpu. They were called Grandmother of Day, Grandmother of Light and Bearer twice over, begetter twice over and given the titles midwife and matchmaker.

XquicEdit

She was the daughter of Cuchumaquic, one of the lords of the underworld, Xibalba. She is noted for being the mother of the Hero Twins, Hunahpu and Xbalanque and is sometimes considered to be the Maya goddess associated with the waning moon.

YEdit

YalukEdit

One of four Mopan "Grandfathers" of the earth and chief lightning god.

YopaatEdit

An important rain god at Copán and Quiriguá in the southern Maya area.[6]

Yum CimilEdit

God of death, disease, and the underworld.

Yum KaaxEdit

God of the woods, of wild nature, and of the hunt; invoked before carving out a maize field from the wilderness.

ZEdit

Zac Cimi *L*Edit

The Bacab of the west.

Zipacna *PV*Edit

A demonic personification of the earth crust.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Taube 1992
  2. ^ "Religion-Mayan Gods Deities". www.maya-archaeology.org.
  3. ^ Braswell, Geoffrey E. (2003). The Maya and Teotihuacan: Reinterpreting Early Classic Interaction. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. p. 286. ISBN 0-292-70587-5. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  4. ^ Thompson 1938, p. 594.
  5. ^ Wanyerka August 2009, p. 182.
  6. ^ Gutiérrez González 2012, p. 1061.

ReferencesEdit