In software engineering, CI/CD or CICD is the combined practices of continuous integration (CI) and (more often) continuous delivery or (less often) continuous deployment (CD).[1]


  • Continuous integration: Frequent merging of several small changes into a main branch
  • Continuous delivery: When teams produce software in short cycles with high speed and frequency so that reliable software can be released at any time, and with a simple and repeatable deployment process when deciding to deploy
  • Continuous deployment: When new software functionality is rolled out completely automatically


CI/CD bridges the gaps between development and operation activities and teams by enforcing automation in building, testing and deployment of applications. CI/CD services compile the incremental code changes made by developers, then link and package them into software deliverables.[2] Automated tests verify the software functionality, and automated deployment services deliver them to end users.[3] The aim is to increase early defect discovery, increase productivity, and provide faster release cycles. The process contrasts with traditional methods where a collection of software updates were integrated into one large batch before deploying the newer version. Modern-day DevOps practices involve:

of software applications throughout its development life cycle. The CI/CD practice, or CI/CD pipeline, forms the backbone of modern day DevOps operations.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Sacolick, Isaac (2020-01-17). "What is CI/CD? Continuous integration and continuous delivery explained". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  2. ^ Rossel, Sander (October 2017). Continuous Integration, Delivery, and Deployment. Packt Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78728-661-0.
  3. ^ Gallaba, Keheliya (2019). "Improving the Robustness and Efficiency of Continuous Integration and Deployment". 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME): 619–623. doi:10.1109/ICSME.2019.00099. ISBN 978-1-7281-3094-1. S2CID 208879679.

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