Cèilidh

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A cèilidh (/ˈkli/ KAY-lee, Scottish Gaelic: [ˈkʲʰeːlɪ]) or céilí (Irish: [ˈceːlʲiː]) is a traditional Scottish and Irish social gathering. In its most basic form, it simply means a social visit. In contemporary usage, it usually involves dancing and playing Gaelic folk music, either at a home or a larger concert at a social hall or other community gathering place.

A cèilidh dance in Alexandria, Virginia, United States

Cèilidhean (plural of cèilidh) and céilithe (plural of céilí) originated in the Gaelic areas of Scotland and Ireland and are consequently common in the Scottish and Irish diasporas. They are similar to the troyl traditions in Cornwall and twmpath and noson lawen events in Wales, as well as English country dance throughout England which have in some areas undergone a fusion with céilithe.

Etymology edit

The term is derived from the Old Irish céle (singular) meaning 'companion'. It later became céilidh and céilidhe, which means 'visit' in Gaelic.[1] In Scottish Gaelic reformed spelling it is spelt cèilidh (plural cèilidhean) and in Irish reformed spelling as céilí (plural céilithe).

History edit

Originally, a cèilidh was a social gathering of any sort, and did not necessarily involve dancing:

The 'ceilidh' is a literary entertainment where stories and tales, poems and ballads, are rehearsed and recited, and songs are sung, conundrums are put, proverbs are quoted, and many other literary matters are related and discussed

— Carmichael, Alexander, Carmina Gadelica, 1900, tome I, p. xxviii.[2]

The ceilidh of the Western Hebrides corresponds to the veillée of Lower Brittany ... and to similar story-telling festivals which formerly flourished among all the Celtic peoples

— Wentz, W. Y. Evans, The Fairy-faith in Celtic countries, Oxford University Press, 1911, p. 32.

On long, dark winter nights it is still the custom in small villages for friends to collect in a house and hold what they call a "ceilidh" (pronounced kay'lee). Young and old are entertained by the reciters of old poems and legendary stories which deal with ancient beliefs, the doings of traditional heroes and heroines, and so on. Some sing old and new songs set to old music or new music composed in the manner of the old.

— Mackenzie, Donald A., Wonder Tales from Scottish Myth and Legend, 1917, p. 14.[3]

In more recent decades, the dancing portion of the event has usurped the older meanings of the term, though the tradition of guests performing music, songs, storytelling, and poetry still persists in some areas.

Céilithe were originally hosted by a fear-an-tigh, meaning 'man of the house'. This is still the form in Ireland, though otherwise in modern events the host is usually referred to more simply as the "host" or "master of ceremonies".[4]

Modern cèilidhean edit

 
The Northern Constabulary Pipe Band Fundraising Cèilidh at North Kessock, Scotland

The cèilidh facilitated courting and prospects of marriage for young people and, although discos and nightclubs have displaced the cèilidh to a considerable extent, such events are still an important and popular social outlet in rural parts of Scotland and Ireland, especially in the Gaelic-speaking regions. Cèilidhean are sometimes held on a smaller scale in private or public houses, for example in remote rural areas and during busy festivals.

It is common for some clubs and institutions such as sports clubs, schools and universities and even employers to arrange cèilidhs on a regular—or at least annual—basis. The formality of these can vary. Some mix modern pop music with a Scottish country dancing band and dress codes range from compulsory highland dress to informal. Knowledge and use of the basic dance steps is not always strictly necessary, and dances often alternate with songs, poetry recitals, storytelling and other types of "party pieces".

Cèilidh music may be provided by an assortment of instruments including fiddle, flute, tin whistle, accordion, bodhrán (frame-drum), hammered dulcimer, and in more recent times also drums, guitar, mandolin, bouzouki, Scottish smallpipes, and electric bass guitar. The music is cheerful and lively, consisting in Ireland mainly of jigs, reels, hornpipes, polkas, slip-jigs, and waltzes, with Scotland adding strathspeys, and England adding regional forms such as the northeastern rant. The basic steps can be learned easily; a short instructional session is often provided for new dancers before the start of the dance itself. In Ireland, the first céilí band was put together in 1926 by Séamus Clandillon, Radio Éireann's director of music, to have dance music for his studio-based programmes.[5]

Dancing at cèilidhean is usually in the form of cèilidh dances, set dances, or couples' dances. A "set" consists of four to eight couples, with each pair of couples facing another in a square or rectangular formation. Each couple exchanges position with the facing couple, and also facing couples exchange partners, while all the time keeping in step with the beat of the music.

About half of the dances in the modern Scots cèilidh, however, are couples' dances performed in a ring. These can be performed by fixed couples or in the more sociable "progressive" manner, with the lady moving to the next gentleman in the ring at or near the end of each repetition of the steps. In Ireland, the similar style of dance is called céilí dance or fíor ('true') céilí dance. Some of the dances are named after famous regiments, historical battles, and events, others after items of daily rural life. The "gay Gordons", "siege of Ennis", "walls of Limerick", and "stack of barley" are popular dances in this genre.

Step dancing is another form of dancing often performed at céilithe, the form that was popularised in the 1990s by the world-famous Riverdance ensemble. Whereas set dancing involves all present, whatever their skill, step dancing is usually reserved for show, being performed only by the most talented of dancers.

The cèilidh has been internationalised by the Scottish and Irish diasporas in Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, where local cèilidhean and traditional music competitions are held. In recent years, cèilidh and traditional music competitions have been frequently won by descendants of emigrants.

It bears mention that cèilidhean are common throughout Nova Scotia. The tradition and the spirit of these gatherings are carried on in most small communities of these Maritime Provinces.

In Scotland edit

 
Scottish cèilidh dancing at the 2003 Smithsonian Folklife Festival (Washington, DC)

Privately organised cèilidhean in the 2020s are extremely common in both rural and urban Scotland, where bands are hired, usually for evening entertainment for a wedding, birthday party, celebratory or fundraising event. These may be more or less formal, and very often omit all other traditional Gaelic activity beyond the actual music and dancing. Novices are usually among the participants, so a "dance caller" may teach the steps before music begins for each dance. The more versatile bands will demonstrate the dances too. Scottish primary schools frequently teach some Scottish country dancing, often around Christmas time. Bands vary in size but are commonly made up of between two and six players. The appeal of the Scottish cèilidh is by no means limited to the younger generation, and dances vary in speed and complexity to accommodate most age groups and levels of ability. Most private schools in Scotland will also hold cèilidhean on a fairly regular basis.

Public cèilidhean are also held, attracting paying participants, often held at dance clubs; and the annual Ceilidh Culture festival in Edinburgh.

Universities in Scotland hold regular cèilidhean, with the University of Edinburgh providing a number for students throughout each term, especially the long-running Highland Annual, the oldest cèilidh in Edinburgh and the largest in Scotland, organised by the Highland Society (An Comann Ceilteach). Glasgow University Union's annual debating competition, Glasgow Ancients, traditionally ends the night with a cèilidh. The union's Christmas event, Daft Friday, also involves a cèilidh.[6] Cèilidhean are common fundraising and social events for many societies at the University of Glasgow.

Some cèilidh bands intersperse cèilidh dancing with a DJ playing disco music to broaden the appeal of the evening's entertainment.[citation needed]

In Northern Ireland edit

The resurgence in the popularity of the céilí over the last 20 years or so in Northern Ireland has been assisted in no small way by the interest in céilithe amongst the younger generation and bands such as 'Haste to the Wedding', a céilí band.

In Ireland edit

 
Céilí dancing

Céilí dances (/ˈkli/, Irish: [ˈceːlʲiː]) or true céilí dances (fíor céilí) are a popular form of folk dancing in Ireland and are part of the broader Irish dances. The Irish céilí dances are based on heys ("hedges", or pairs of facing lines), round dances, long dances, and quadrilles,[7] generally revived during the Gaelic revival in the first quarter of the twentieth century[8] and codified by the Irish Dancing Commission.[9] There are about thirty dances that form the basis for examination of céilí dance teachers. Irish céilí is a participatory social event attended by both men and women and accompanied by live Irish traditional music. The dance emerged within cultural nationalist consciousness as during the late 19th and early 20th century traditions promoting nationalist agendas, and national identities were regarded as not culturally unified.

History and background edit

Irish céilí regained its popularity in the late 19th century, when Ireland made efforts to regain its cultural and political autonomy after being colonized for over 800 years. The goal of the Gaelic League established in 1893 was to promote Irish cultural independence and de-anglicisation, which involved the remergent popularization of the Irish language, literature, and vernacular traditions, such as Irish singing and dancing. Plentiful branches of the Gaelic League giving dance, singing, music, and literature classes were established across Ireland.[10]

Dance form and style edit

The style of dance employed for céilí dance differs greatly from that used for set dance, and has more the appearance associated with the style of step dance. In particular, it emphasizes height and extension, with dancers generally dancing on their toes (but not en pointe as in ballet). A movement called "side-step" or "sevens and threes" with which dancers travel sideways to the direction they are facing is common, as are jig-step movements called[11] the "rising step" or "grinding step". Céilí dances may be divided into figures, but a single type of tune is generally used for all the figures and the dancing does not pause between the figures.

Unlike square dance and round dance, céilí dances are generally not called by a caller; the flow of dance is defined by its name.

Social ceili dances edit

Céilí dances when performed socially are often performed in a progressive style. At the end of one whole iteration of the dance (lead around and body), instead of stopping, the groups move on to the next set of partners in the line. Céilí dances that can be performed progressively are: walls of Limerick, siege of Ennis, haymaker's jig, and fairy reel. When there is a large social gathering, there will often be a caller for the dance, though it is a very different style from square-dancing caller. A céilí caller is usually the teacher or most experienced dancer of the group who has the dance memorized. They then call the movements out in a non-stylized way, intended to remind those who are non-dancers when and where to move. Social céilí dances are often the easiest dances and very easy to shuffle through as a non-dancer. A caller makes sure that everyone at a social dance can participate. Embellishments are accepted and fun in social céilí dances, women adding spins or changing the style of a swing based on the skill of a partner.

Diagram of movement in progressive ceili dance:
Walls of Limerick
First dance position Progressed position Next progressed position
Couple 2
Couple 1 Couple 2
Couple 2 Couple 1 Couple 4
Couple 4
Couple 3 Couple 1
Couple 4 Couple 3 Couple 6
Couple 6
Couple 5 Couple 3
Couple 6 Couple 5 Couple 5

Similar gatherings in England edit

Cèilidh in England has evolved a little differently from its counterparts elsewhere in Scotland and Ireland. English cèilidh, sometimes abbreviated to eCeilidh or E-ceilidh, can be considered part of English country dance (and related to contra dance). English cèilidh has many things in common with the Scottish and Irish social dance traditions. The dance figures are similar using couples' dances, square sets, long sets, and circle dances. However, the English style requires a slower tempo of tune accentuating the on-beat, the central instrument often being the English melodeon, a diatonic accordion in the keys of D and G. Dancers often use a skip, a step-hop or rant step depending on region. This contrasts with the smoother style and more fluid motion seen in Ireland, Scotland, or (the walking) in contra. Many cèilidh dances involve a couple, but this does not limit the number of partners any one dancer has during the ceilidh. Often dancers will change partners every dance to meet new people.

An important part of English cèilidhs is the "caller" who instructs the dancer in the next dance. An experienced cèilidh caller will have a good understanding of the mechanics of the tunes and a deep knowledge of regional dances from the UK and beyond. They will confer with the band about what type of tune to play for the dance. This aids the selection of the right dance for the right audience. This skill is so sought after in the south of England that there are callers who are famous in their own right. However, many bands have their own caller, often also an instrumentalist; some have two.

During an English ceilidh there is often an interval involving the talents of local Morris or rapper side; this also serves to give bands with older members a rest.

It is possible to see many diverse and regionally distinct acts at a modern English ceilidh. Acts range from the most traditional, like the Old Swan Band, to the most experimental like the electronic dance music-influenced Monster Ceilidh Band. Many other forms of music have been combined with English ceilidh music including; Irish music from the band Phoenix Ceilidh Band; ska from the band Whapweasel; traditional jazz from the bands Chalktown and Florida; funk fusion from Licence to Ceilidh, Ceilidhography, and Climax Ceilidh Band, rock from the bands Peeping Tom, Aardvark Ceilidh Band, Touchstone, and Tickled Pink; West African- and Indian-influenced music from the band Boka Halattraditional; traditional French music from the band Token Women; traditional Welsh music from Twm Twp; and heavy metal from Glorystrokes.[12]

In popular culture edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Scottish music - Céilidh". BBC. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Carmina Gadelica Vol. 1: Introduction". www.sacred-texts.com.
  3. ^ Wonder Tales from Scottish Myth & Legend. London : Blackie and Son. 1917.
  4. ^ "Gaelic-English Dictionary". TranslationDictionary. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  5. ^ de Buitléar, Éamon (2004). A Life in the Wild. Dublin: Gill & MacMillan. p. 83.
  6. ^ "Daft Friday". Glasgow University Union. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  7. ^ The Flowing Tide: More Irish Set Dancing Pat Murphy, Mercier Press, 2000, p. 16
  8. ^ The Story of Irish Dance, Helen Brennan, Mount Eagle Publications, Dingle, Co. Kerry, Ireland, 1999, pp. 29–43
  9. ^ Ár Rincí Fóirne-Thirty Popular Figure Dances, An Coimisiún le Rincí Gaelacha, Wellbrook Press, 1939-2003
  10. ^ Foley, Catherine (2011). "The Irish Céilí: A site for constructing, experiencing, and negotiating a sense of community and identity". Dance Research. 29 (1): 43–60. doi:10.3366/drs.2011.0004. hdl:10344/4695. JSTOR 41428389.
  11. ^ Folk Music and Dances of Ireland, Brendan Breathnach, Ossian Publications, 1996, p. 43
  12. ^ Winter, Trish; Simon, Keegan-Phipps (2015). Performing Englishness: Identity and Politics in a Contemporary Folk Resurgence. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780719097300 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ "Irish Song Lyrics - When New York was Irish". IrishSongs.com.
  14. ^ "Black 47 - Black 47". Allmusic. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  15. ^ Sheeran, Ed. "Galway Girl [Official Lyric Video]". YouTube. Archived from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2018.

Bibliography edit

  • John Cullinane: Aspects of the History of Irish Céilí Dancing, The Central Remedial Clinic, Clontarf, Dublin 3,(1998), ISBN 0-9527952-2-1
  • An Coimisiún le Rincí Gaelacha: Ár Rincí Fóirne-Thirty Popular Céilí Dances, Westside Press (2003)
  • J. G. O' Keeffe, Art O' Brien: A Handbook of Irish Dances, 1. Edition, Gill & Son Ltd., (1902)[1]
  • Helen Brennan: The Story of Irish Dance, Mount Eagle Publications Ltd., 1999 ISBN 0-86322-244-7

Further reading edit

  • The Sweets of May; Aoibhneas na Bealtaine: The céilí band era, music and dance of south Armagh. Ceol Camlocha (Tommy Fegan, chairman; book accompanied by 2 CDs and a DVD)

External links edit