Business game (also called business simulation game) refers to simulation games that are used as an educational tool for teaching business. Business games may be carried out for various business training such as: general management, finance, organizational behavior, human resources, etc. Often, the term "business simulation" is used with the same meaning.
A business game is defined as "a game with a business environment that can lead to one or both of the following results: the training of players in business skills (hard and/or soft), or the evaluation of players' performances (quantitatively and/or qualitatively)".
Simulation are considered to be an innovative learning method, and are often computer-based.
Computer-supported business simulation originated from military war games, and came into existence during the late 1950's. Business simulation games, including non-computer-based board games and experiential activities, have since been used as a learning tool for teaching management (Jackson 1959) (Andlinger 1958). It is regularly in use at universities, and in particularly by major business schools. As an example, the University of Washington has been using business simulation game in classes since 1957 (Saunders 1996, p. 49).
The INTOP tool was developed at the University of Chicago in 1963, and was employed for teaching in 160 institutions worldwide from 1963 until 2005. Its successor INTOPIA was first released in 1995, and it has been used by universities in over 55 countries around the world, including 18 in the U.S.
Business games are also used within companies for management training and development (Faria 1990).
- Greco, Marco; Baldissin, Nicola; Nonino, Fabio (2013). "An Exploratory Taxonomy of Business Games". Simulation & Gaming. 44 (5): 645–682. doi:10.1177/1046878113501464.
- Aldrich, Clark (January 2004). "Simulations and the Future of Learning: An Innovative (and Perhaps Revolutionary) Approach to e-Learning". Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 7: 149–150.
- Wells, Robert A. (1990-01-01). "Management Games and Simulations in Management Development: An Introduction". Journal of Management Development. 9 (2): 4–6. doi:10.1108/02621719010002108. ISSN 0262-1711.
- Andlinger, G.R. (1958), "Business Games-Play One!", Harvard Business Review, 28: 115–25
- Faria, Anthony J. (1990), "4. Business Simulation Games after Thirty Years: Current Usage Levels in the United States" (PDF), in Gentry, J.W. (ed.), Guide to Business Gaming and Experiential Learning, London: Nichols/GP, pp. 36–47, ISBN 978-0893973698, archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2014, retrieved 12 March 2014
- Jackson, James R. (1959), "Learning from Experience in Business Decision Games", California Management Review, University of California Press Journals, 1 (2): 92–107, doi:10.2307/41165351, JSTOR 41165351
- Saunders, Danny (1996), Games and Simulations to Enhance Quality Learning; Volume 4 of International Simulation and Gaming Yearbook, Psychology Press, ISBN 978-0749418663