B. T. Finniss
- Not to be confused with Captain Finnis, droving companion of Charles Sturt and for many years a prominent South Australian
B. T. Finniss
|1st Premier of South Australia|
24 October 1856 – 20 August 1857
|Governor||Sir Richard MacDonnell|
|Succeeded by||John Baker|
|Member of the South Australian Parliament|
for City of Adelaide
9 March 1857 – 22 March 1860
|Preceded by||New District|
|Succeeded by||Philip Santo|
Boyle Travers Finniss
18 August 1807
Born at sea
|Died||24 December 1893 (aged 86)|
Adelaide, South Australia
|Resting place||West Terrace Cemetery|
|Spouse(s)||Anne Frances Rogerson (1835–1858)|
Sophia Florence Maud Lynch
|Years of service||1825–1835|
Finniss was born at sea and lived in Madras in what is now India from where he was sent to Greenwich in England for his education. He later entered the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, placing first of sixteen candidates at the entrance examination. In 1825 he became an ensign in the 88th Regiment of Foot, was promoted lieutenant in 1827 to the 56th (West Essex) Regiment of Foot, and then spent three years in Mauritius in the department of roads and bridges.
In 1835 Finniss sold off his commission and, having been appointed assistant surveyor under surveyor-general Colonel William Light, arrived in South Australia in September 1836. He supported Light's choice of the site of Adelaide and assisted in laying out the city; his correspondence during the early years shows him to have been a man of good judgment and he was an able assistant during the surveys.
Finniss joined Light in a private surveying firm, Light, Finniss & Co. While in private enterprise, Light and Finniss surveyed several towns, including Glenelg and Gawler. He also had several other business interests, but they eventually all failed, and he returned to the public service.
Public service and political careerEdit
In 1839, Finniss was appointed deputy surveyor-general. In 1843, he became Commissioner of the South Australia Police and a police magistrate. In 1847, he was made Treasurer of South Australia and registrar general; in 1851, was nominated to the South Australian Legislative Council by the governor Sir Henry Young.
In 1852 he was appointed Colonial Secretary of South Australia, and in July 1853 had charge of the bill to provide for two chambers in the South Australian parliament. In the interim between the departure of Governor Young in December 1854 and the arrival of Sir Richard Graves McDonnell in June 1855, Finniss acted as administrator. The bill of 1853 was rejected by the British government, and a new bill was brought forward in 1855 providing for two purely elective houses. This received the royal assent in 1856.
Finniss was elected one of the representatives for the city of Adelaide and became the first premier and Chief Secretary of South Australia. There were early difficulties between the two houses but Finniss, during the four months his ministry was in session, succeeded in passing measures to deal with waterworks for Adelaide and the first railway in South Australia. He was treasurer in the Richard Hanson ministry from June 1858 to May 1860 and at the new election in that year was, with John Dunn one of the representatives for Mount Barker.
1864 expedition to the Northern TerritoryEdit
In 1864 the South Australian government, desiring to open up the Northern Territory, organised a survey party under Finniss, appointing him as the Government Resident of the Northern Territory and giving him instructions to examine the Adelaide River and the coastline to the west and east of it. Finniss chose a site, Escape Cliffs, near the mouth of the Adelaide River for the settlement, but his choice was much criticised. He had problems with insubordination of his officers, who were jealous of the attention he paid to some of the lesser ranks (notably W. P. Auld and J. W. O. Bennett); nor was he popular with the men, who had expected to spend time exploring and not as much on tedious duties such as keeping guard on the stores; he had not secured adequate supplies for the expedition; and did not enjoy good relations with the local Aboriginal people.
On 9 August 1864, during one of Finniss's absences, James Manton sent a party on horseback to recover stores which had been plundered by local Aboriginals. When approaching their camp, they were surrounded by spear-carrying warriors, who injured a horse and several men, William Pearson quite seriously. Fellow-riders Fred Litchfield and Dyer removed Pearson from the scene, and when a second party arrived on foot, the Aborigines scattered, but one man was shot dead by Alaric Ward.
A month later the Aborigines mounted another raiding party, spearing several horses, which created a great deal of anger in the depot. Finniss put his son Frederick in charge of an armed party sent out to Chambers Bay (some 8 miles (13 km) distant) to assert some kind of order (Finniss's instructions were not published). Dr. Francis Goldsmith, who, apart from his medical duties, had been appointed Protector of Aborigines, demanded a place in the party, but was ordered by Finniss to remain at the depot. The blacks fled their camp, but one unarmed old man named Dombey was shot in the back. Having recovered whatever property they could, the party then set fire to their dwellings. Returning to the depot, they were regaled as conquering heroes and each treated to a tot of rum. On 20 September Finniss appointed his son clerk-in-charge and accountant, in place of Ebenezer Ward, whom Finniss had suspended for disloyalty. Auld was charged with the murder.
In May 1865 a dissident party of seven men fled to Champion Bay, Western Australia, in a small boat dubbed the Forlorn Hope, and Finniss was eventually recalled. He was called before a Parliamentary Commission in May 1866 and answered his critics point by point, supported with a printed pamphlet, to the consternation of influential financier Frank Rymill, a major critic.
In 1860 he published a martial anthem The Gathering : A War Song of Australia, and a love song Canst thou not read the mute Appeal ?; both set to music by Mrs. A. J. Murray.
In 1875, he was a member of the forest board and in the following year was acting auditor general. He retired from the government service in 1881, and spent his leisure in preparing an interesting but rambling Constitutional History of South Australia (1886). He died on 24 December 1893, aged 86, and is buried at the West Terrace Cemetery.
Finniss was twice married and left a widow, a son and two daughters. He married Anne Frances Rogerson on 13 August 1835; she died on 3 January 1858. On 3 May 1878 he married Sophia Florence Maud Lynch. His eldest daughter Fanny Lipson Finniss (later Morgan) was the first European girl born in South Australia, on 31 December 1836 or 1 January 1837. Finniss's employee James Hoare was father of the first boy, on 7 November 1836.
Finniss married Anne Frances Rogerson (1819–1858) on 13 August 1835 at St. Audoen's, Dublin, Ireland
- Fanny Lipson Finniss (1837–1865) married Frederick George Morgan (1826–1900)
- Boyle Travers Nixon Finniss (1839–1853)
- Julia Howard Finnis (1840–1918)
- William Charles Maxwell Finniss (1842–1919)
- Emily Anne Finniss (1844–1929)
- Henry John Finniss (1845–1846)
- Frederick Robe Finniss (1847–1908) accompanied his father to Escape Cliffs in 1864
- Coraly Newton Maud Finniss (1884–1890)
- Ethel Maude Mary Finnisss (1890–1976)
The Finniss River in South Australia and Finniss River in the Northern Territory are both named after him, along with Finniss Springs, Northern Territory, and the South Australian Electoral district of Finniss.
Finniss Street, in North Adelaide was one of the dozens of street names chosen by the Street Naming Committee around 1840 to commemorate people of importance to the founding of Adelaide. Boyle Street and Finniss Street in the Adelaide suburbs of Marion and Oaklands Park came around 1856.
- "Finniss, Boyle Travers (1807–1893)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. 1966. pp. 377–379. Retrieved 30 August 2007.
- Percival Serle (1949). "Finniss, Boyle Travers". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Angus & Robertson. Retrieved 30 August 2007.
- "Table A: Governors and Administrators" (PDF). Parliament of South Australia. 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Nominations at Wellington". The South Australian Advertiser. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 26 March 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Ayers, Henry (10 March 1864). "Untitled announcement of the appointment of the Government Resident of the Northern Territory" (PDF). The South Australian Government Gazette. Government of South Australia. p. 184. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
His Excellency has this day been pleased to appoint Boyle Travers Finniss, Esq., to be Government Resident in and for the New Territory recently annexed to this Province by Her Majesty's Royal Letters Patent, bearing date July 6th, 1863
- Parliamentary papers ... Extracts from a Private Letter from B. T. Finniss South Australian Register 13 October 1864 p.2 accessed 27 September 2011
- "North Australia". South Australian Register. XXVIII, (5602). South Australia. 12 October 1864. p. 2. Retrieved 30 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- "The Northern Territory". South Australian Weekly Chronicle. VII, (334). South Australia. 31 December 1864. p. 6. Retrieved 30 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) Ward was speared to death in an ambush the following year.
- "Northern Territory Commission". South Australian Register. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 11 May 1866. p. 3. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Duryea Mining Company". South Australian Register. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 16 September 1862. p. 3. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- "South Australian Literature and Music". The South Australian Advertiser. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 25 June 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- "South Australia's First Girl". The Register (Adelaide). LXXXIV, (22, 549). South Australia. 15 February 1919. p. 10. Retrieved 7 October 2019 – via National Library of Australia.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- "The First-born South Australian". South Australian Register. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 7 November 1857. p. 3. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- "Family Notices". The Argus (Melbourne) (24, 769). Victoria, Australia. 28 December 1925. p. 1. Retrieved 12 February 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Family Notices". The South Australian Advertiser. South Australia. 4 May 1878. p. 4. Retrieved 12 February 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- Finniss (Map). Electoral District Boundaries Commission. 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- Dolling, Alison The History of Marion on the Sturt p.339 Peacock Publications ISBN 0-909209-48-0
- "NEW TOWN NAMES APPROVED". The Chronicle. LXXXIII, (4, 728). South Australia. 1 August 1940. p. 13. Retrieved 31 August 2016 – via National Library of Australia.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- SA Parliament – Finniss
- Northern Territory History
- "History of Adelaide through street names". Archived from the original on 13 March 2005.