Borg(Redirected from Borg (Star Trek))
The Borg are a fictional alien group that appear as recurring antagonists in the Star Trek franchise. The Borg are cybernetic organisms, linked in a hive mind called "the Collective". The Borg co-opt the technology and knowledge of other alien species to the Collective through the process of "assimilation": forcibly transforming individual beings into "drones" by injecting nanoprobes into their bodies and surgically augmenting them with cybernetic components. The Borg's ultimate goal is "achieving perfection". Aside from being recurring antagonists in the Next Generation television series, they are depicted as the main threat in the film Star Trek: First Contact. In addition, they played major roles in the Voyager series and serve as the way home to the Alpha Quadrant for the isolated Federation starship USS Voyager. The first encounter between humans and the Borg is depicted in the 2nd season of the series Enterprise in the episode "Regeneration" in which the phrase "you will be assimilated; resistance is futile" is heard by the crew of the Enterprise for the first time.
|Founded||A localized humanoid race for hundreds of thousands of years,|
evolved cybernetic existence and started space travel before 1492
|Base of operations||Delta Quadrant|
The Borg are cyborgs, having outward appearances showing both mechanical and biological body parts. Individual Borg are referred to as drones and move in a robotic, purposeful style ignoring most of their environment, including beings not deemed a threat. Borg commonly have one eye replaced with a sophisticated ocular implant. Borg usually have one arm replaced with a prosthetic one, bearing one of a variety of multipurpose tools in place of a humanoid hand. Since different drones have different roles, the arm may be specialized for a myriad of purposes such as medical devices, scanners, and weapons. Borg have flat, white skin, giving them an almost zombie-like appearance.
Some Borg have been shown to be far stronger than humans; able to easily overpower most humans and similar species. Typical Borg have never been seen to run. Borg are resistant to phaser fire, many having personal shielding which adapts to phaser fire. In various episodes, phasers tend to become ineffective after time as the Borg is able to adapt to the phaser frequency. Later attempts to modulate phaser frequencies have limited success. Borg shields have not been seen to protect against non-energy weapons such as projectile or melee weapons.
Borg possess a "cortical node" which controls other implanted cybernetic devices within a Borg's body, and is most often implanted in the forehead above the retained organic eye. If the cortical node fails, the Borg eventually dies. Successful replacement of the node can be carried out on a Borg vessel.
Borg civilization is based on a hive or group mind known as the Collective. Each Borg drone is linked to the collective by a sophisticated subspace network that ensures each member is given constant supervision and guidance. The mental energy of the group consciousness can help an injured or damaged drone heal or regenerate damaged body parts or technology. The collective consciousness not only gives them the ability to "share the same thoughts", but also to adapt with great speed to tactics used against them. Drones in the Collective are never seen speaking, but a collective "voice" is sometimes transmitted to ships.
"Resistance is futile"Edit
Individual Borg rarely speak, though they do send a collective audio message to their targets, stating that "resistance is futile", generally followed by a declaration that the target in question will be assimilated and its "biological and technological distinctiveness" will be added to their own. The exact phrasing varies and evolves over the various series episodes and film.
The complete phrase used in Star Trek: First Contact is:
"We are the Borg. Lower your shields and surrender your ships. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. Your culture will adapt to service us. Resistance is futile."
Nanoprobes are microscopic machines that inhabit a Borg's body, bloodstream, and many cybernetic implants. The probes perform the function of maintaining the Borg cybernetic systems, as well as repairing damage to the organic parts of a Borg. They generate new technology inside a Borg when needed, as well as protecting them from many forms of disease. Borg nanoprobes, each about the size of a human red blood cell, travel through the victim's bloodstream and latch on to individual cells. The nanoprobes rewrite the cellular DNA, altering the victim's biochemistry, and eventually form larger, more complicated structures and networks within the body such as electrical pathways, processing and data-storage nodes, and ultimately prosthetic devices that spring forth from the skin. In "Mortal Coil", Seven of Nine states that the Borg assimilated the nanoprobe technology from "Species 149". In addition, the nanoprobes work to maintain and repair their host's mechanical and biological components on a microscopic level, allowing regenerative capabilities.
Though used by the Borg to exert control over another being, reprogrammed nanoprobes were used by the crew of the starship Voyager in many instances as medical aids.
The capability of nanoprobes to absorb improved technologies they find into the Borg collective is shown in the Voyager episode "Drone", where Seven of Nine's nanoprobes are fused with the Doctor's mobile emitter which uses technology from the 29th century, creating a 29th-century drone existing outside the Collective, with capabilities far surpassing that of the 24th-century drones.
The Borg do not try to immediately assimilate any being with which it comes to contact; in fact, Borg drones tend to completely ignore beings that are identified as too weak to be a threat and too inferior to be worth assimilating. Captain Picard and his team walk safely past a group of Borg drones in a scene from the film Star Trek: First Contact while the drones fulfill a programmed mission. In the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Mortal Coil", Seven of Nine told Neelix that the Kazon were "unworthy" of assimilation and would only detract from the Borg's quest for perceived perfection.
The Borg are a spacefaring race, and their primary interstellar transport is known as a "Borg Cube" due to its shape. A cube was first seen in the Next Generation episode "Q Who?" in 2365. Common capabilities of cubes include high speed warp and transwarp drives, self-regeneration and multiple-redundant systems, adaptability in combat, and various energy weapons as well as tractor beams and cutting beams. Additionally, different types and size of Cubes have been observed as well as Borg Spheres and some smaller craft.
As with most other Star Trek races, the Borg also have transporter capability.
Assimilation is the process by which the Borg integrate beings, cultures, and technology into the Collective. "You will be assimilated" is one of the few on-screen phrases employed by the Borg when communicating with other species. The Borg are portrayed as having found and assimilated thousands of species and billions to trillions of individual life-forms throughout the galaxy. The Borg designate each species with a number assigned to them upon first contact; humanity being 'Species 5618'.
When first introduced, the Borg are said to be more interested in assimilating technology than people, roaming the universe as single-minded marauders that have assimilated starships, planets, and entire societies to collect new technology. They are discriminating in this area, finding certain races, for example the Kazon, to be technologically inferior and not worthy of assimilation. A Borg infant found aboard a Borg Cube in "Q Who?" shows that the Borg will even assimilate children. The Borg then place the assimilated children into maturation chambers to quickly and fully grow them into mature drones.
The method of assimilating individual life-forms into the Collective has been represented differently over time. When we see the Borg in Star Trek: The Next Generation, assimilation is through abduction and then surgical procedure. In Star Trek: First Contact and Star Trek: Voyager, assimilation is through injection of nanoprobes into an individual's bloodstream via a pair of tubules that spring forth from a drone's hand. Assimilation by tubules is depicted on-screen as being a fast-acting process, with the victim's skin pigmentation turning gray and mottled with visible dark tracks forming within moments of contact. After assimilation, a drone's race and gender become "irrelevant". After initial assimilation through injection, Borg are surgically fitted with cybernetic devices. In Star Trek: First Contact an assimilated crew member is shown to have a forearm and an eye physically removed and replaced with cybernetic implants.
The Borg also assimilate, interface, and reconfigure technology using these tubules and nanoprobes. However, in Q Who? we see a Borg apparently trying to assimilate, probe or reconfigure a control panel in engineering using an energy interface instead of nanoprobes.
Some species, for various stated reasons, are able to resist assimilation by nanoprobe. Species 8472 is the only race shown to be capable of completely rejecting assimilation attempts. Other species, such as the Hirogen, have demonstrated resistance to assimilation as well as Dr Phlox who was able to partially resist the assimilation process in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Regeneration".
The Borg represented a new antagonist and regular enemy that was lacking during the first season of TNG; the Klingons were allies and the Romulans mostly absent. The Ferengi were originally intended as the new enemy for the United Federation of Planets, but their comical appearance and devotion to capitalist accumulation by free enterprise failed to portray them as a convincing threat. The Borg, however, with their frightening appearance, their immense power, and their sinister motive, became the signature villains for the TNG and Voyager eras of Star Trek. In Voyager episode "Q2", even Q tells his son "don't provoke the Borg."
Star Trek: The Next Generation (TNG) writers began to develop the idea of the Borg as early as the Season 1 episode, "Conspiracy", which introduced a coercive, symbiotic life form that took over key Federation personnel. Plans to feature the Borg as an increasingly menacing threat were subsequently scrapped in favor of a more subtle introduction, beginning with the mystery of missing colonies on both sides of the Neutral Zone in "The Neutral Zone" and culminating in the encounter between Borg and the Enterprise crew in "Q Who?".
Before the film Star Trek: First Contact (1996), the Borg exhibited no hierarchical command structure. First Contact introduced the Borg Queen, who is not named as such in the film (referring to herself as “I am the Borg. I am the Collective.") but is named Borg Queen in the closing credits. The Queen is played by Alice Krige in this film and in the 2001 finale of Star Trek: Voyager, "Endgame". The character also appeared in Voyager's two-part episodes "Dark Frontier" (1999) and "Unimatrix Zero" (2000), but was portrayed by Susanna Thompson. Whether or not all of these appearances represent exactly the same Queen is never confirmed. In First Contact, the Borg Queen is heard during a flashback of Picard's former assimilation, implying that she was present during the events of "Best of Both Worlds".
The Borg Queen is the focal point within the Borg collective consciousness and a unique drone within the Collective, who brings "order to chaos", referring to herself as "we" and "I" interchangeably. In First Contact, the Queen's dialogue suggests she is an expression of the Borg Collective's overall intelligence, not a controller but the avatar of the entire Collective as an individual. This sentiment is contradicted by Star Trek: Voyager, where she is seen explicitly directing, commanding, and in one instance even overriding the Collective. The introduction of the Queen radically changed the canonical understanding of the Borg function, with the authors of The Computers of Star Trek noting "It was a lot easier for viewers to focus on a villain rather than a hive-mind that made decisions based on the input of all its members." First Contact writers Brannon Braga and Ronald D. Moore have defended the introduction of the Queen as a dramatic necessity, noting on the film's DVD audio commentary that they had initially written the film with drones, but then found that it was essential for the main characters to have someone to interact with beyond mindless drones.
The Next GenerationEdit
The Borg first appear in the Star Trek: The Next Generation second-season episode "Q Who?", when the omnipotent life-form Q hurls the Enterprise-D across the galaxy to challenge Jean-Luc Picard's assertion that his crew is ready to face the galaxy's dangers and mysteries. The Enterprise crew is overwhelmed by the Borg, and Picard begs for and receives Q's help in returning the ship to its previous coordinates.
The Borg next appear in The Next Generation's third-season finale and fourth-season premiere, "The Best of Both Worlds". Picard is abducted and assimilated by the Borg and transformed into Locutus, the Latin for "he who speaks". Picard's knowledge of Starfleet's strengths and strategies is gained by the Collective, and the single cube destroys the entire Starfleet armada at Wolf 359. The Enterprise crew manages to capture Locutus, gain information through him which allows them to destroy the cube, and then reverse the assimilation process.
In the fifth-season episode "I, Borg", the Enterprise crew rescues an adolescent Borg they name "Hugh". The crew faces the moral decision of whether or not to use Hugh (who begins to develop a sense of independence as a result of a severed link to the Collective) as a means of delivering a devastating computer virus to the Borg, or return to the Borg with his individuality intact. They decide to return him without the virus, but in the sixth-season episode "Descent", a group of rogue Borg who had "assimilated" individuality through Hugh fall under the control of the android Lore, the "older brother" of Data. Lore also corrupts Data through the use of an "emotion chip", but in the end, Data's ethical subroutines are restored and he manages to deactivate Lore. Data recovers the emotion chip and the surviving Borg fall under the leadership of Hugh.
The Borg return as the antagonists in the Next Generation film, Star Trek: First Contact. After again failing to assimilate Earth by a direct assault in the year 2373, the Borg travel back in time to the year 2063 to try to stop Zefram Cochrane's first contact with the Vulcans, change the timeline, and erase Starfleet from existence. The Enterprise-E crew follows the Borg back in time and restores the original timeline. First Contact introduces the Borg Queen.
Deep Space NineEdit
The only screen appearance made on this series was in the premiere episode Emissary. Benjamin Sisko (Avery Brooks) was an officer on the USS Saratoga, one of the ships in the Starfleet armada dispatched to confront the Borg at Wolf 359. The Saratoga is destroyed by the Borg, killing Sisko's wife, Jennifer. During that episode, Sisko's meeting with Picard is tense as he blames Picard for the actions of Locutus. Throughout the remainder of the series, references to the Borg are made occasionally, including the design of their ship, USS Defiant, and the battle from Star Trek: First Contact being used as a plot point in Season 5 when Starfleet is spread too thin to deal with a Dominion incursion.
The Borg make frequent appearances in Star Trek: Voyager, which takes place in the Delta Quadrant. The Borg are first seen by Voyager in the third-season episode "Blood Fever" in which Chakotay discovers the body of what the local humanoids refer to as "the Invaders"; which turns out to be the Borg. In "Scorpion", the Borg are engaged in a war of attrition against Species 8472, whose biological defences are a match for the Borg's nanoprobes. In one of the few instances of the Borg negotiating, in exchange for safe passage through Borg space, the Voyager crew devises a way to destroy the otherwise invulnerable Species 8472. A Borg drone, Seven of Nine, is dispatched to Voyager to facilitate this arrangement. After successfully driving Species 8472 back into their fluidic space, Seven of Nine is severed from the Collective and becomes a member of Voyager's crew. Seven of Nine's rediscovery of her individuality becomes a recurring theme throughout the series.
In the fifth season, we see the Borg in "Drone", where an advanced Borg drone is created when Seven of Nine's nanoprobes are fused with the Doctor's mobile emitter in a transporter accident, "Infinite Regress", and "Dark Frontier", where Voyager steals and uses a transwarp coil to travel 20,000 light-years before it burns out.
In the sixth season episode, "Collective", the crew of Voyager encounter a damaged cube that is holding Tom Paris, Neelix, Harry Kim and Chakotay hostage. With all the adult drones dead, the ship is run by five Borg children who are saved by Voyager and deassimilated.
In the seventh season we see the Borg in "Q2", where Q's son brings Borg onto Voyager and in the series finale, "Endgame", where Admiral Janeway from the future tries to bring Voyager back to Earth using a Borg transwarp hub. During this episode, Janeway infects the Borg with a neurolytic pathogen which infects the collective and kills the Queen.
In the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Regeneration", the remnants of the destroyed sphere from Star Trek: First Contact are discovered in the Arctic along with two frozen drones. The Borg steal a research ship and send a transmission toward the Delta Quadrant before they are destroyed.
The origin of the Borg is never made clear, though they are portrayed as having existed for hundreds of thousands of years (as attested by Guinan and the Borg Queen). In Star Trek: First Contact, the Borg Queen merely states that the Borg were once much like humanity, "flawed and weak", but gradually developed into a partially synthetic species in an ongoing attempt to evolve and perfect themselves.
In TNG's "Q Who?", Guinan mentions that the Borg are "made up of organic and artificial life [...] which has been developing for [...] thousands of centuries." In the later episode of Star Trek: Voyager, "Dragon's Teeth", Gedrin, of the race the Vaadwaur, says that before he and his people were put into suspended animation 892 years earlier (1482), the Borg had assimilated only a few colonies in the Delta Quadrant and were considered essentially a minor nuisance. Now awake in the 24th century, he is amazed to see that the Borg control a vast area of the Delta Quadrant. Seven of Nine comments that the Borg's collective memories of that time period are fragmentary, though it is never established why that is.
The Star Trek Encyclopedia speculates that a connection could exist between the Borg and V'ger, the vessel encountered in Star Trek: The Motion Picture. This idea of a connection is advanced in William Shatner's novel The Return. The connection was also suggested in a letter included in Starlog no. 160 (November 1990). The letter writer, Christopher Haviland, also speculated that the original Borg drones were members of a race called "the Preservers", which Spock had suggested in the original series episode "The Paradise Syndrome" might be responsible for why so many humanoids populate the galaxy. It was confirmed in the TNG episode "The Chase" that an ancient species seeded hundreds, if not thousands of planets with their DNA, creating the Humans, Vulcans, Klingons, Romulans, Cardassians, and many more.
The extra section of the game Star Trek: Legacy contains the supposed "Origin of the Borg", which tells the story of V'ger being sucked into a black hole. V'ger was found by a race of living machines which gave it a form suitable to fulfilling its simplistic programming. Unable to determine who its creator could be, the probe declared all carbon-based life an infestation of the creator's universe, leading to assimilation. From this, the Borg were created, as extensions of V'ger's purpose. Drones were made from those assimilated and merged into a collective consciousness. The Borg Queen was created out of the necessity for a single unifying voice. With thoughts and desires of her own, she was no longer bound to serve V'ger.
In the graphic novel Star Trek: The Manga, the Borg resulted from an experiment in medical nanotechnology gone wrong. An alien species under threat of extinction by an incurable disease created a repository satellite containing test subjects infused with body parts, organs, and DNA of multiple species along with cybernetic enhancements put in place by advanced medical technology. The satellite was maintained by nanomachines, which also maintained the medical equipment on board. The medical facility is parked in orbit by a black hole, and along with the relativistic state of time around the black hole, allows long-term research to continue at an accelerated time scale rather than in real-time speed. As the medical facility deteriorates, so does the programming of the nanomachines. The nanomachines began infusing themselves into the patients, interpreting them as part of the satellite in need of repair. Among the patients is the daughter of the head medical researcher of the satellite. The satellite eventually falls apart in an encounter with an away team from the Enterprise under the command of James T. Kirk. In the final moments of the satellite's destruction and the escape of the crew members of the Enterprise with the patients, the subjects display qualities inherently resembling the Borg: injection of nanomachines in a fashion similar to assimilation, rapid adaptation to weaponry, and a hive mind consciousness, as all the subjects begin following the whim of the daughter. As succumbing to the disease was inevitable, and the corrupt nanomachine programming infused itself into the bodies, the final image of the page of the manga Borg origin is left with the daughter turned Borg Queen, stating, "Resistance is futile."
In the novel Lost Souls (the third book in the Star Trek: Destiny trilogy), the Borg are revealed to be the survivors of the Caeliar city Mantilis. Thrown across the galaxy in the Delta Quadrant and back in time to about 4500 BC by the destruction of Erigol at the climax of Gods of Night, the first book in the trilogy, a group of human survivors from the starship Columbia (NX-02) and Caeliar scientists try to survive in a harsh arctic climate. Most of the human survivors die of exposure, while several Caeliar are absorbed into their race's gestalt to give life to the others in their group mind. The Caeliar offer the remaining humans a merging of human and Caeliar, to allow both groups to survive. The human survivors are resistant and as time goes on, the Caeliar called Sedin becomes the sole survivor of her group, her mental processes and her form both degrading as time goes on. When the humans return to Sedin for help, she forces them to merge with her, unwilling to allow herself to die when a union can save her life. The forced merging of the humans and the mostly decayed Caeliar results in the creation of the first Borg. The gestalt group mind is perverted to become the collective, driven by Sedin's desperate hunger and need to add the strength, technology, and life-force of others to her own. Ironically, while the Caeliar were–albeit accidentally–involved in the creation of the Borg, they also provide the means to end it; in the 24th century, the Caeliar absorb the entire Borg collective back into themselves, ending the cyborgs' centuries-long reign of terror.
Other Non-canon media appearancesEdit
In the Star Trek novel Probe, which takes place following the events of Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, the Borg are mentioned obliquely in communication with the whale-probe as spacefaring "mites" (the whale-probe's term for humanoid races) who traveled in cubical and spherical spacefaring vessels; the Borg apparently attacked the whale-probe and damaged its memory in some fashion before the events of the film.
In the Star Trek Game Star Trek: Legacy, the Borg are featured prominently throughout the Enterprise and TOS era's before becoming a major threat in the TNG era. In unlockable motion-comics that are unlocked after completing each era, it is revealed that the Vulcan T'Uerell experimented on Borg corpses left behind from the Enterprise episode "Regeneration", and became assimilated. It wasn't until the end of the TOS era that she made contact with the main Borg force and became a queen before she was finally killed in a fleet of Starfleet, Romulan, and Klingon ships led by Picard.
The Peter David novel Vendetta reveals that the planet killer weapon from the Original Series episode "The Doomsday Machine" is a prototype for a weapon against the Borg. David revisited this concept in a 2007 sequel novel, Before Dishonor, which features the Enterprise-E working with Spock and Seven of Nine to reactivate the original planet killer to stop the Borg.
In William Shatner's novel The Return, Spock is nearly assimilated by the Borg, but is saved because he mind-melded with V'ger, an earlier form of the Borg, and they assume that he is already a Borg. Using the information he subconsciously acquired in the meld, Spock is able to lead a crew of Enterprise officers (consisting of the Enterprise-D crew, himself, Admiral McCoy, and the resurrected Kirk) in a Defiant-class ship to destroy the Borg central node, severing all branches of the Collective from each other and limiting their future threat.
In David Mack's novel trilogy Star Trek: Destiny, set over a year after Star Trek: Nemesis, the Borg stage a massive invasion of local space. Due to Kathryn Janeway crippling their infrastructure in "Endgame", the Borg fear for their survival and attempt to exterminate the Federation and its neighbors. They destroy the populations of numerous Federation worlds before being dismantled by the Caeliar, the advanced species that spawned them. The crews of the Enterprise-E, the Titan, and the Aventine had made contact with the Caeliar, learned of their role in the creation of the Borg, and convinced them to end the Borg once and for all.
In the Doctor Who/Star Trek crossover comic, Assimilation2, the Borg join forces with the Cybermen. When the Cybermen subvert the Collective, the Enterprise-D crew work with the Eleventh Doctor and the Borg, restoring the Borg to full strength and erasing the Borg/Cyberman alliance from existence.
Writers Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens developed an unproduced idea for an episode which would have featured Alice Krige as a Starfleet medical technician who encounters the Borg and is assimilated – thereby becoming the Borg Queen.
In video gamesEdit
The Borg appear as antagonists to the player in the following Star Trek videogame titles:
- Star Trek: The Next Generation: Birth of the Federation
- Star Trek: A Final Unity
- Star Trek: Armada
- Star Trek: Armada II
- Star Trek: Away Team
- Star Trek: Borg
- Star Trek: Voyager – Elite Force
- Star Trek: Elite Force II
- Star Trek: Starfleet Command III
- Star Trek: Encounters
- Star Trek: Invasion
- Star Trek: Legacy
- Star Trek: Conquest
- Star Trek Online
- Star Trek: Borg Contact
Activision planned to release Star Trek: Borg Assimilator, in which the player would play a Borg, but later canceled the game.
Critical reception and popular cultureEdit
The Borg uttered the phrase in several Star Trek episodes and the film Star Trek: First Contact (which used the phrase as the tagline for the 1996 film). Patrick Stewart's delivery of the line, as Locutus, in "The Best of Both Worlds" was ranked no. 93 in TV Land's list of "The 100 Greatest TV Quotes and Catchphrases". It was used as the title for an episode of the TV series Dexter.
- The insignia appears at about 35:00 in the episode Q Who, colored red-on-black rather than white-on-black of this version, to the left of Commander Riker as the away team walks into the Borg nursery.
- Star Trek: First Contact
- "The Best of Both Worlds, Parts I and II" (TNG)
- Star Trek - First Contact (1996) Archived September 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Moviesoundclips.net. Rikeromega3 Productions 1999-2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
- Star Trek: Voyager, season 3 episode 26 and Season 4 Episode 1 (Scorpion Parts 1 & 2)
- text commentary by Michael Okuda in the collector's edition of Star Trek: First Contact
- Lois H. Gresh & Robert Weinberg, The Computers of Star Trek. New York: Basic Books (1999): 147. "It was a lot easier for viewers to focus on a villain rather than a hive-mind that made decisions based on the input of all its members."
- Nemeck, Larry (2003). Star Trek: The Next Generation Companion. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-7434-5798-6.
- "Doctor Who, Star Trek crossover comic revealed • Doctor Who News • WhovianNet". whoviannet.co.uk. Archived from the original on April 8, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- "Interview: Reeves-Stevenses Talk Mars and Enterprise". Trekmovie.com. September 22, 2007. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- Nemecek, Larry (2003). The Star Trek: The Next Generation Companion: (Revised ed.). Pocket Books. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-7434-7657-7.
- Bretts, Bruce; Roush, Matt; (March 25, 2013). "Baddies to the Bone: The 60 nastiest villains of all time". TV Guide. pp. 14 - 15.
- Hayot, Eric; Haun Saussy; Steven G. Yao (2008). Sinographies: writing China. U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4724-8.
- Nardi, Eric Bonnie; Vicki O'Day (2000). Information ecologies: using technology with heart. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-14066-7. Retrieved Jan 3, 2009.
- Strangelove, Michael (2005). The empire of mind: digital piracy and the anti-capitalist movement. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-3818-2. Retrieved Jan 3, 2009.
- "Resistance Is Futile: The New Wave of Video Games About Depression". Playboy. Archived from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
- "The 100 Greatest TV Quotes and Catchphrases". TV Land. Archived from the original on March 6, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
- Patrick Thaddeus Jackson and Daniel H. Nexon, "Representation is Futile?: American Anti-Collectivism and the Borg" in Jutta Weldes, ed., To Seek Out New Worlds: Science Fiction and World Politics. 2003. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29557-X. pp. 143–167.
- Thomas A. Georges. Digital Soul: Intelligent Machines and Human Values. Boulder: Westview. ISBN 0-8133-4057-8. p. 172. (The Borg as Big Business)