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Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD)

The Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) advises the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) on issues concerning agriculture, Higher Education in developing countries, and food insecurity. BIFAD was established by Title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act, and both the BIFAD board and Title XII recognize the critical role of U.S. land-grant institutions in food and agricultural security, domestically and abroad.[1] BIFAD consists of seven board members appointed by the White House, four of which must come from the US Academic community.[2] The board's mission is to draw on higher educations's scientific knowledge to advise the U.S. international assistance efforts along with domestic efforts to end food insecurity.

Board for International Food and Agricultural Development
Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (logo).jpg
Agency overview
Formed1975
HeadquartersWashington, D.C.
Agency executives
  • Mark E Keenum, Chair
  • Pamela K. Anderson, Board member
  • James M. Ash, Board member
  • Dr. Waded Cruzado, Board member
  • Dr. Bradly J. Deaton, Board member
  • Dr. Gebisa Ejeta, Board member
  • Mr. Richard L. Lackey, Board member
Websitehttp://www.usaid.gov/bifad

Contents

HistoryEdit

BIFAD was created by USAID in 1975, under Title XII (Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger) of the Foreign Assistance Act.[3] Title XII itself was passed in Congress to address the global issues of food insecurity and hunger.[4] Title XII underlines in its main text the benefits to be gotten out of more involvement of US Universities in agriculture, the need for developing countries to have their own institutions and trained people to thrive and adapt to local needs, and how more focus and efforts in agriculture can benefit both the US and the international scene. BIFAD was also tasked with the formulation of basic policy, procedures, and criteria for project proposal review, selection, and monitoring, as noted in Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.[3] BIFAD is the only presidentially appointed board that assists the Administrator of USAID in developing and implementing the official U.S. foreign assistance programs.[5]

Challenges and strategiesEdit

BIFAD believes that current global challenges that face the international community in terms of poverty and food insecurity are, a current 800 million people suffering from chronic hunger, 2 billion people affected by micronutrient deficiency, 700 million people living in extreme poverty, and the estimated growth in global population expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050, with growth occurring disproportionately in Africa and Asia.[6] Challenges facing the production of foodstuff include the threat of new strains of pathogens, dropping water tables, and a changing climate. In order to solve these problems food production will have to dramatically increase with limited resources usage of land and water along with disease and insect resistant crops. BIFAD is helping in the creation of new technologies that will help in sustaining long-term food security, with focus areas on genetics, storage, food processing, nutrition, and resource conservation by advising USAID on how to act.

Current Chairman and Board MembersEdit

Board ChairEdit

Mark E. KeenumEdit

 
BIFAD Board Members

Mark E. Keenum, president of Mississippi State University is BIFAD's current chairman, was chosen in 2018 by President Donald Trump to chair the BIFAD succeeding Brady Deaton.[7] Prior to his appointment Dr. Keenum served as Under Secretary of the US Department of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agriculture Services and later was appointed to the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR). Additional postings include chairman of the Presidents United to Solve Hunger (PUSH) Steering Committee and later served on the Feed the Future (FtF) Evaluation Oversight Committee.[8]

Board MembersEdit

Pamela K. AndersonEdit

Pamela K. Anderson became a board member of BIFAD in 2016. Before her appointment she served as Director General for the International Potato Center (CIP), served as Director for the Agricultural Development Program of the Bill and Malinda Gate Foundation, and as a senior entomologist and coordinator of the Tropical Whitefly IPM Program at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture.[9]

James M. AshEdit

James M. Ash became a board member of BIFAD in 2016. Before his appointment he worked as a partner in the law firm Husch Blackwell LLP and served as Chair of the firm's Food and Agribusiness unit, He had overseen many mergers and acquisitions in the agribusiness industry.[9]

Waded CruzadoEdit

Waded Cruzado became a board member of BIFAD in 2016.[10] Before her appointment she served as the Executive Vice President and Provost of New Mexico State University and later served as Montana state University's 12th president.[9]

Bradly J. DeatonEdit

Brady J. Deaton became a board member of BIFAD in 2018. Before his appointment he served as chair of BIFAD from 2011-2018[9]

Gebisa EjetaEdit

Gebisa Ejeta became a board member of BIFAD in 2010. Before his appointment he served as the Executive Director of the Purdue Center for Global Food Security and continues to do so, served as a member of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), he has also taken part in numerous science and program review panels along with many research projects.[9]

Richard L. LackeyEdit

Richard L. Lackey became a board member of BIFAD in 2018. He is the founder and CEO of the World Food Bank Inc. along with the Global Food Exchange Inc. He also has lots of experience with emergency medical response and medical missions.[9]

Past and present chairmenEdit

Clifton R. Wharton Jr.Edit

Clifton R. Wharton Jr. was appointed head of BIFAD in 1976 by President Gerald Ford where he served for 8 years. Before his appointment he served as president of Michigan State University and later served as U.S. Deputy Secretary of State under President Bill Clinton and as Chairman ads CEO of TIAA-CREF.[11]

E.T. YorkEdit

E.T. York passed away on Friday, April 15, 2011. He was former University of Florida vice president for agriculture and natural resources, executive vice president, and interim president. E.T. York was appointed by President Jimmy Carter to the BIFAD board, where he served for three years. He was then reappointed by President Ronald Reagan, but this time as the chairman for BIFAD. He was also chancellor emeritus of the State University system, and worked repeatedly with USAID on agriculture and food production in developing countries.[12]

William E. LaveryEdit

William E. Lavery was appointed as chairman of BIFAD in 1987 by President Ronald Reagan and served for 3 years. Before serving on BIFAD he was the 12th president of Virginia Tech where he served for 13 years. During this time he helped to move Virginia Tech in the list of top 50 research institutions in the country.[13]

Wales H. MaddenEdit

Wales H. Madden was appointed as head of the BIFAD, then BIFADEC, by George H. W. Bush. Wales H. Madden went to serve in the Navy after high school, afterwards he went on to graduate from Harvard. After graduating from Harvard he served as the Regional Chairman of the War Labor Board in World War II, he later went on to serve as a Regent of the University of Texas.[14]

Edward SchuhEdit

Edward Sedward chuh was appointed as chair of BIFAD by President Clinton where he served for 7 years.[citation needed] Before BIFAD he was a professor of agricultural economics at Purdue University, he later became Director of the Center for Public Policy and Public Affairs, and just before his appointment to BIFAD he served as Deputy Under Secretary for the International Affairs and Commodity Programs for the United States Department of Agriculture.

Peter McPhersonEdit

Peter McPherson is, as of 2018, the president of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities. He was nominated in 2002 as BIFAD chair, and resigned in 2007 so he could focus more on his work with APLU (NASULGC at the time).[15] Past work includes service in the peace corps, government services under the Ford and Reagan administrations, as well as being the former president of Michigan State University, and chairman of Dow Jones.

Robert EasterEdit

Robert Easter was appointed in 2006 by President George Bush to the BIFAD board, and in 2007 became the interim chairman. He was appointed President of the University of Illinois, an office which he retired from in 2015. His past work includes 36 years as an administrator at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), as well as being interim chancellor from 2009-2011, serving as chief executive officer of the 42,000-student campus, and has served as interim provost and interim vice chancellor for research.[16]

Brady DeatonEdit

Brady Deaton, chancellor of the University of Missouri and BIFAD's served as chairman from 2011-2017. He was chosen in 2011 by President Barack Obama to succeed Robert Easter as the BIFAD chair.[2] Brady Deaton also serves on the board of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU), and has worked with Winrock International, the advisory committee on Small Business and Agriculture of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, the Kellogg Foundation, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Science at the University of Florida, and The Southern Growth Policies Board.[17]

Past and present board membersEdit

[18][19][20][21][21][22][23][24][25]

Year Chairman Board Member Board Member Board Member Board Member Board Member Board Member
1976 Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr.
1977 Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr.
1978 Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr. Dr. Johnnie Watts Prothro Dr. Orville G. Bentley Dr. Anson R. Bertrand Mr. Charles Krause Mr. Peter McPherson Dr. Gerald W. Thomas
1979 Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr. Dr. Johnnie Watts Prothro Dr. Orville G. Bentley Mr. David Garst Dr. Rebecca Robbins Polland Mr. Peter McPherson Dr. Gerald W. Thomas
1980 Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr. Dr. Johnnie Watts Prothro Dr. Orville G. Bentley* Mr. David Garst Dr. Rebecca Robbins Polland Mr. Peter McPherson* Dr. Gerald W. Thomas*
1981 Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr. Dr. Johnnie Watts Prothro Dr. C. Peter Magrath Mr. David Garst Dr. Rebecca Robbins Polland Dr. E. T. York Dr. H. F. Robinson
1982 Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr. Dr. Johnnie Watts Prothro* Dr. C. Peter Magrath Mr. David Garst* Dr. Rebecca Robbins Polland Dr. E. T. York Dr. H. F. Robinson
1983 Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr.* Mr. Ernest T. Marshall Dr. C. Peter Magrath Mr. Daryl Arnold Mr. Charles J. Marshall Dr. E. T. York** Dr. H. F. Robinson
1984 Dr. E. T. York Mr. Ernest T. Marshall Dr. Benjamin F. Payton Dr. Duane C. Acker Mr. Charles J. Marshall Hon. Paul Fidley Dr. Warren J. Baker
1985 Dr. E. T. York Mr. Ernest T. Marshall* Dr. Benjamin F. Payton Dr. Duane C. Acker Mr. Charles J. Marshall Hon. Paul Fidley Dr. Warren J. Baker
1986 Dr. E. T. York* Mr. L. William McNutt Jr. Dr. Benjamin F. Payton Dr. Duane C. Acker Mr. Charles J. Marshall* Hon. Paul Fidley Dr. Warren J. Baker
1987 Dr. William E. Lavery Mr. L. William McNutt Jr. Dr. Hugh LaBounty Dr. Leonard Spearman Dr. Jean Ruley Kearns Hon. Paul Fidley Dr. Leo Walsh
1988 Dr. William E. Lavery Mr. L. William McNutt Jr.* Dr. Hugh LaBounty Dr. Leonard Spearman* Dr. Jean Ruley Kearns Hon. Paul Fidley Dr. Leo Walsh
1989 Dr. William E. Lavery* Dr. Wendell G. Rayburn Dr. Hugh LaBounty Mrs. Gwendolyn S. King Dr. Jean Ruley Kearns Hon. Paul Fidley Dr. Leo Walsh
1990 Mr. Wales H. Madden Jr. Dr. Wendell G. Rayburn Dr. Hugh LaBounty Mr. Christopher Hicks Dr. Jean Ruley Kearns Hon. Paul Fidley Dr. Leo Walsh
1991 Mr. Wales H. Madden Jr. Dr. Wendell G. Rayburn Dr. Hugh LaBounty* Mr. Christopher Hicks Dr. Jean Ruley Kearns* Hon. Paul Fidley Dr. Leo Walsh
1992 Mr. Wales H. Madden Jr. Dr. Wendell G. Rayburn Dr. John Byrne Mr. Christopher Hicks Dr. John DiBiaggio Hon. Paul Fidley
1993 Mr. Wales H. Madden Jr. Dr. Wendell G. Rayburn* Dr. John Byrne* Dr. John DiBiaggio*
1994 Mr. Wales H. Madden Jr.
1995 Dr. Edward Schuh
1996 Dr. Edward Schuh
1997 Dr. Edward Schuh
1998 Dr. Edward Schuh
1999 Dr. Edward Schuh
2000 Dr. Edward Schuh
2001 Dr. Edward Schuh*
2002 Peter McPherson William Delauder Carol Lewis Anthony G. Laos Micheal Deegan Sharron Quisenberry Stewart Iverson Jr.
2003 Peter McPherson William Delauder Carol Lewis Anthony G. Laos Micheal Deegan Sharron Quisenberry Stewart Iverson Jr.
2004 Peter McPherson William Delauder Carol Lewis Anthony G. Laos Micheal Deegan Sharron Quisenberry Stewart Iverson Jr.
2005 Peter McPherson William Delauder Carol Lewis Anthony G. Laos Micheal Deegan Sharron Quisenberry Stewart Iverson Jr.
2006 Peter McPherson William Delauder Allen Christensen Anthony G. Laos Micheal Deegan Sharron Quisenberry Stewart Iverson Jr.
2007 Robert Easter William Delauder Allen Christensen Timothy Rabon Catherine Bertini H. H. Barlow III John Thomas
2008 Robert Easter William Delauder Allen Christensen Timothy Rabon Catherine Bertini H. H. Barlow III Keith W. Eckel
2009 Robert Easter William Delauder Allen Christensen Timothy Rabon Catherine Bertini H. H. Barlow III Keith W. Eckel
2010 Robert Easter William Delauder Gebisa Ejeta Timothy Rabon Catherine Bertini H. H. Barlow III Elsa Murano
2011 Brady Deaton William Delauder Gebisa Ejeta Marty McVey Catherine Bertini Jo Luck Elsa Murano
2012 Brady Deaton William Delauder Gebisa Ejeta Marty McVey Catherine Bertini Jo Luck Elsa Murano
2013 Brady Deaton Harold Martin Sr. Gebisa Ejeta Marty McVey Catherine Bertini Waded Cruzado *Vacant*
2014 Brady Deaton Harold Martin Sr. Gebisa Ejeta Marty McVey Catherine Bertini Waded Cruzado *Vacant*
2015 Brady Deaton Harold Martin Sr. Gebisa Ejeta Marty McVey Catherine Bertini Waded Cruzado Cary Fowler
2016 Brady Deaton Harold Martin Sr. Gebisa Ejeta James Ash Pamela Anderson Waded Cruzado Cary Fowler
2017 Brady Deaton Harold Martin Sr. Gebisa Ejeta James Ash Pamela Anderson Waded Cruzado Cary Fowler
2018 Mark E. Keenum Brady Deaton Gebisa Ejeta James Ash Pamela Anderson Waded Cruzado Richard Lackey

*Member left partway through the year, **Member became Chairman

Events and MeetingsEdit

BIFAD taskforce on HaitiEdit

 
BIFAD Meeting

One of BIFAD's goals, after its creation, was to determine the role Higher Education Institutions could have in agricultural development. As such, after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, BIFAD organised a task force to see what role Title XII agricultural Universities and other public land-grant institutions could have in the reconstruction of Haiti. Approved in January 2010, the task force was organized through several conference calls during the month of February, and developed the goal to "to develop recommendations for BIFAD to deliver to the USAID Administrator regarding long-term Haiti reconstruction and regional development; and the role of land-grant universities in this." One idea for Universities to help with Haiti's reconstruction was to host students whose institution had been destroyed by the earthquake, so that they could continue or finish their studies without disturbances. The task force met in person in March to set realistic expectations with a focus on long-term thinking of a vision for Haiti.[26]

BIFAD Afghanistan Agricultural StrategyEdit

BIFAD, in coordination with the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) held a meeting on the US agricultural strategy in Afghanistan. Attending were representatives from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the State Department, the U.S. Central Command, the National Guard Bureau and the U.S. Marine Corp, and 21 representatives of Title XII institutions. The discussion concerned the institutional development of the Ministry of Agriculture in Afghanistan. With 80% of Afghanistan's population depending on agriculture, such development was seen as essential to prevent insurgencies, create employment opportunities, and the development of the country. After the meeting, a working group with representatives form the USDA, USAID, and Universities was created to continue meeting regularly to discuss what could be done for Agricultural "research, learning and extension competencies in Afghanistan to develop strategies and opportunities to expand long-term training." [27]

BIFAD MeetingsEdit

The BIFAD Board meets several times per year with the representatives from key institutions (USAID, APLU...) and land grant Universities to discuss the ongoing projects and most important topics concerning Agriculture and Education. As of July 2014, there have been 166 BIFAD meetings. The topics since 1975 have included humanitarian relief, agriculture and nutrition, global food prices, sustainability, the Feed the Future Initiative, African Higher Education, Human and Institutional Capacity Development, and many other subjects that turn around education, agriculture, and domestic or international concerns.[28][29][30]

Past projects and ReportsEdit

Past ProjectsEdit

Borlaug Higher Education Research and Development Program.Edit

In June 2011, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) launched a new set of programs called the Borlaug 21st Century Leadership Program honoring the legacy of Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Norman Borlaug. This initiative is a major new effort to train individuals and strengthen developing country public and private institutions, enabling them to take advantage of scientific and technological breakthroughs to promote innovation across the agricultural sector. BIFAD was asked to help establish one of the programs within the broader Borlaug 21st Century Leadership Program, called the Feed the Future Borlaug Higher Education Agricultural Research and Development Program (BHEARD).[31]

Feed the Future Research ForumEdit

In May 2011, Feed the Future (FtF) held a forum that placed a major emphasis on research, development of new technologies, policies, and a "whole government" approach to end world hunger. The forum would help Feed the Future identify research opportunities in their new stratify to combat global hunger, USAID and USDA partnered with the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) and the Board on International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) to convene a consultative process for engaging the US and international research communities to respond to the strategy and to identify research opportunities that support Feed the Future's research goals. An initial workshop was held at Purdue University in January 2011 to set the context for the discussion and frame a process. In May 2011 an e-consultation was held, followed by a stakeholder forum, convened in Washington DC in June 2011. This consultative process was designed to allow research stakeholders to further refine research priorities and identify opportunities for new ways of working in order to inform Feed the Future's research implementation efforts.[32]

Africa-U.S. Higher Education InitiativeEdit

In July 2007, BIFAD and USAID along with a number of groups based in the United States and Africa came together to consider what could be done to assist in strengthening African higher education’s capacity to educate and solve problems relevant to national and regional development. These meetings resulted in an initiative to strengthen the capacity of African higher education through partnerships between African and U.S. higher education institutions, over a sustained period for mutual benefit. The principal goal of the Initiative was to facilitate deeper and more effective partnerships between African and U.S. institutions of higher education with a view to contributing more effectively to key priority development areas such as science and technology; agriculture, environment and natural resources; engineering; business, management and economics; health, and education and teacher training.[33]

ReportsEdit

Report on BIFAD Visit to Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) and Innovation Agricultural Research Initiative (iAGRI)Edit

BIFAD's report of The iAGRI project stated that the iAGRI project represents a comprehensive approach to human and institutional capacity development (HICD) and will implement the strategy plans of BIFAD, USAID, and Feed the Future. This project will address the research, training, and institutional capacity needs of Sokoine University of Agriculture and the Ministry of Education's, of Tanzania, a strategic plan using a demand-driven project approach. The iAGRI partnership is a partnership between many US universities such as Ohio State, Michigan State, Virginia Tech, Tuskegee University, and the University of Florida, and is an example of BIFAD's and USAID's investment in university-to-university partnership.[34]

iAGRI Report Letter of TransmittalEdit

According to the BIFAD report, the iAGRI project explored the university-to-university partnership model and the usage of a basic conceptual framework for the approach of using both formal and informal levels to yield better results from the project. The iAGRI partnership, according to BIFAD, is a program that will be able to provide tertiary agricultural education that is able to deliver the skills needed for a rapidly evolving agricultural sector of Tanzania. IAGRI is important in this regard as BIFAD suggests that primary education is not enough to support and sustain the kind of modernization needed to achieve rapid sustained agricultural growth and poverty reduction currently seen in Tanzania.[35]

Feed the World in 2050: How Human and Institutional Capacity Development Can Support Agricultural Innovation SystemsEdit

USAID and BIFAD support multiple studies that studied the effect of Human and Institutional Capacity Development can support agricultural development. During the review of the type of program by BIFAD and USAID, the two came to a certain conclusion on how to enhance the programs such as: design human and institutional capacity development activities strategically, ensuring that individual leadership, manager, and technical skills strengthen institutions; strengthen long-term institutional capacity development activities; build diverse partnerships of mutual interest and motivation; support programs to be flexible, adaptable, and responsive to market needs; build both human and institutional networks; increase women's participation in the agricultural sciences by establishing and maintaining gender equitable institutions; increase access and use of information and communication technologies in agricultural innovation systems based on findings from careful monitoring and evaluation of real impact.[36]

Title XII Reports to CongressEdit

2016 Title XII Report to CongressEdit

BIFAD's and USAID's goal for 2016 was to create a foreign assistance whose purpose was providing assistance that ends the need for future foreign assistance. They have done this by supporting programs that focus on development of agriculture, agricultural research, education, and extension. Specific programs include: Feed the Future and the Global Food Security Act of 2016, whose goal was to tackle to root causes of global hunger through the Feed the Future initiative and 11 Federal Departments and Agencies; Research and University Engagement, Feed the Future Innovation labs with 79 colleges and universities supported research on global agricultural issues and problems; Human and Institutional Capacity Development, USAID and BIFAD supported graduate degree training with a focus on agricultural programs around the world; Focus on Youth, USAID and BIFAD created a new program focusing on issues of youth unemployment and education and how these issues relate and can be addressed through agricultural development; and Supporting Universities, by supporting universities partnered with BIFAD and USAID the two can strengthen local abilities f researcher s and educational centers to teach the next generation of farmers and researchers to deal with ever-evolving problems and threats to agriculture.[37]

2015 Title XII Report to CongressEdit

BIFAD's and USAID's goal for 2015 was to create deeper ties with local partners and Universities both abroad and in the U.S. to aid in foreign assistance, development of local knowledge, and research capabilities both in the U.S. and abroad. The Feed the Future along with 11 federal departments and agencies partnered with USAID, BIFAD, and a number of colleges and universities to tackle the problems of global food security through investments in agricultural research, education, extension, nutritional programs, and sustainable management of natural resources and trade. USAID and BIFAD also partnered with non title XII universities to address the problems of food security, climate change, and extreme poverty. USAID and BIFAD in cooperation with the State Department launched Regional Leadership Centers for the Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI).[38]

2014 Title XII Report to CongressEdit

BIFAD's and USAID's goal for 2014 was to work with partners to develop and implement a strategic approach for agricultural development. With the help of Title XII universities, USAID and BIFAD invested in multiple programs to aid in global agricultural development: Feed the Future, along with 11 federal departments and agencies all helped advance global food security; Research and University Engagement, with the help of university partners BIFAD and USAID launched the Global Development Lab whose goal is to test and scale up breakthrough solutions; Human and Institutional Capacity Building, BIFAD and USAID will begin to re-examine the nature of partnership between U.S. Universities and Universities in developing countries; and Labs Solutions, USAID and BIFAD will reform labs in an effort to make labs more transparent, effective, accountable, and sustainable.[39]

2013 Title XII Report to CongressEdit

BIFAD's and USAID's goal for 2013 was to advance agricultural research. USAID and BIFAD achieved the goal through partnerships with: Feed the Future Initiative, through direct investment BIFAD and USAD funded multiple programs in areas such as agriculture, environment, and higher education; Feed the Future innovation labs, where USAID and BIFAD paired Feed the Future with U.S. Title XII universities to research solutions to agricultural problems; Higher Education Solutions Network (HESN), where USAID and BIFAD worked with Universities on problems relating to food insecurity; and Global Development Lab, where proven technology can be scaled to aid farmers and others to achieve food security.[40]

2012 Title XII Report to CongressEdit

BIFAD's and USAID's goal for 2012 was to focus on malnutrition in children and help farmers adopt new technologies. USAID and BIFAD achieved their goal by partnering with many organizations such as: Feed the Future, to help educate and improve access to nutrition for children; Collaborative Research and Support Program (CRSP), by refocusing their efforts to deliver and integrate research; Feed the Future innovation labs, with USAID and BIFAD have expanded to more universities; the Global Development Lab, who will generate, test, and scale breakthrough solutions to complex development problems; and the Higher Education and Solutions Network (HESN), an organization that focuses the efforts of academia in a data-driven, results-oriented manner.[41]

2011 Title XII Report to CongressEdit

BIFAD's and USIAD's goal for 2011 was to focus on build up partnerships with Universities and other partners. USAID and BIFAD achieved their goal by partnering many organizations such as: Feed the Future, to strengthen agricultural development in partner countries; Universities, to increase research and university-led food security programs; and partner countries, who with USAID and BIFAD strengthened regional research, training, and extension projects. Other achievements include: Human and Institutional Capacity programs were expanded, increased support to collaborative research projects, and a newfound emphasis on innovation, science, and technology to solve food insecurity.

2010 and 2009 Title XII Report to CongressEdit

BIFAD' and USAID's goal for 2009 and 2010 was to focus on the root causes of food insecurity by partnering with U.S. Agricultural Universities and their public and private partners. USAID and BIFAD achieved their goal by working with many organizations such as: Title XII Universities, by expanding agricultural research, education, and extension projects; Feed the Future, by engaging with youth, private sector actors, and international agricultural research institutions to highlight the urgency of which global food security needs to be tackled; and Partner Countries who with USAID and BIFAD strengthened regional research, training, and extension projects.[42]

2008 Title XII Report to CongressEdit

BIFAD's and USAID's goal for 2008 was to focus on decreasing overall global food prices. Areas of focus for this year were: increasing agricultural productivity, including sound natural resource management and adaptation to climate change; linking small producers to markets and encouraging private sector growth; increasing agricultural trade; improving nutrition; ensuring equitable opportunity for women; ans engaging underserved populations, particular the very poor, in rural economic growth. USAID and BIFAD worked with Title XII universities as well to extend knowledge and learning to developing countries with a focus on Human and institutional Capacity programs.[43]

The BIFAD award for Scientific ExcellenceEdit

The 2017 BIFAD Award for Scientific ExcellenceEdit

[44] James Beaver of the University of Puerto Rico and Juan Calos Rosas of the Zamorano Panamerican Agricultural University in Honduras were chosen as winners for the 2017 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. They have been recognized for their work in the breeding of disease-resistant and drought and heat-tolerant varieties of common beans. The team is developed more than 60 cultivars with increased yield, quality, and stability throughout Central America., along with 23 bean lines and germplasm resistant to Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus, Bean Common Mosaic Virus, and Bean common Mosaic Necrosis. Dr. Beaver and Dr. Rosas collaborative research has directly improved the incomes and food security of smallholder farmers across the Central America.[45]

Laouali Amadou of the University of Niger was chosen as a winner of the 2017 BIFAD award for Scientific Excellence. His work with parasitoids as a way to control pest, mainly the Niger's pearl millet head miner which destroys hundreds of millions of dollars worth of crop damage each year. This innovative solution was chosen as due to its usage of naturally occurring parasitoids to control the population of the millet head miner which unlike pesticides it is environmentally sustainable and does not negatively impact the farmers that use them.[46]

The 2016 BIFAD Award for Scientific ExcellenceEdit

[44] The team of Micheal Carter, Christopher Barrett, and Andrew Mude were chosen as winners of the 2016 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. They were chosen based on their research on chronic poverty, with the focus on causes and solutions. Their research has pioneered new solutions on how to solve the problem of chronic poverty and food insecurity. Much of the research can be applied to policy and has already been implemented in parts of Kenya and Ethiopia, where it is aiding in decreasing food insecurity and chronic poverty.[47]

Daljit Singh of Kansas State University was chosen as a winner of the 2016 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. He was chosen for his work in applied wheat genomics to develop a heat-tolerant, high-yield, and farmer-accepted varieties for South Asia. This development of new wheat strains will aid in ending food insecurity in the region and will aid in increasing the income of farming communities.[48]

The 2015 BIFAD Award for Scientific ExcellenceEdit

[44] Murdock of Purdue University was chosen as a winner of the 2015 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. He was chosen for his research into cow pea production and storage which has helped many resource-poor farmers in Africa cut losses of harvest peas to weevils down to virtually zero. His work led to the evolved hermetic three-bag storage technology now in widespread use in Africa which has led to increased grain value, eliminated pesticide risks, and has created a new micro-credit market using grain as collateral. Overall Dr. Murdork's research has led in the decrease of food-insecurity and poverty in the region.[49]

D. Layne Coppock of Utah State University and Dr. Getachew Gebru of MARIL PLC, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were chosen as winners of the 2015 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. Their team was chosen for their work in Pastoral Risk Management (PARIMA) Project where they focused on ways to diversify income, assets, and improve access to information among mainly women pastoralists, through micro-loans. Their research led to an increase in income in communities along with the introduction of women into the workforce.[49]

The 2014 BIFAD Award for Scientific ExcellenceEdit

[44] Rangaswamy Muniappan of Virginia Tech was chosen as a winner of the 2014 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. He was chosen for his research into a biological control of the papaya mealybug which has brought about economic benefits of between $500 million - $1.3 billion. Dr. Rangaswamy has also been credited with the development of biological controls for the pink hibiscus mealybug, the fruit-piercing moth, the red coconut scale, the banana weevil, and the Asian cycad scale. His research has led to an increase in crop profitability and food security, while also lowering the usage of pesticides protecting both farmers and the surrounding environment.[50]

Kelsey Barale was chosen as a winner of the 2014 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. She was chosen for her work in understanding how agricultural information can best be transferred to farmers, particularly disadvantaged women and smallholder farmers. Her work has led to effective communication about farmer needs and improved and sustainable farming practices, to increase food security in many developing countries.[51]

Elana Peach-Fine was chosen as a winner of the 2014 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. She was chosen for her work in with the Horticulture Collaborative Research Support Program (Horticulture CRSP) along with other work with the scaling up of agricultural practices in developing countries. Her work has led to the deceasing rates of food insecurity.

The 2012 BIFAD Award for Scientific ExcellenceEdit

[44] Jim Simon of Rutgers University was chosen as a winner of the 2012 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. He was chosen for his work in agricultural research and training programs in sub-Saharan Africa. He has created agricultural jobs for women and handicapped individuals along with creating new markets for them to access. He has helped decrease food-insecurity for high-risk groups.[52]

Gerardine Mukeshimana of Michigan State University was chosen as a winner of the 2012 BIFAD Award for Scientific Excellence. She was chosen for her work in breeding the common pear to be both drought tolerant and disease resistant in her home country of Rwanda. She has also identified the key components of bean genetic inheritance, including drought-resistant mechanisms, and has developed a fast and cost-effective method for screening these components. Her work has led to increasing crop productivity and a decrease in food insecurity in the region.[53]

Modes of assistanceEdit

[54]

Higher Education as an Engine of Opportunity and Enabler of DevelopmentEdit

According to BIFAD the higher education community is vital to the advancement of agricultural and food security, along with economic and social development, by teaching the next generation of farmers and scientists how to solve problems and overcome challenges related to food security BIFAD and USAID have increased food security in regions that need it the most. BIFAD and USAID have invested $2.8 billion (financial year of 2011 through the financial year of 2016) into higher education globally.

Global distribution of investment at higher education intuitionsEdit

By supporting the global distribution of higher education BIFAD is hoping to increase the global level of food and agriculture security, USAID and BIFAD have directly invested over $86 million (fiscal year of 2016) into foreign higher education. A total of 50 higher education institutions in 33 counties received the funding 21 institutions in 11 sub-Saharan African countries, 4 institutions of in 3 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, 9 institutions in 6 Asian countries, 8 institutions in 6 European countries, 2 institutions in Australia, 2 institutions in Central America and Canada, and 4 institutions in South America and the Caribbean.

Distribution of investments at U.S. higher education institutionsEdit

USAID and BIFAD invested more the $334 million in U.S. institutions of higher education supporting food and agriculture security. An additional $48 million (2016) was given to U.S. institutions of higher education in other grants and contracts.

Feed the Future Innovation LabsEdit

USAID and BIFAD supported a total of 24 Feed the Future Innovation Labs that used the expertise of 79 different colleges and Universities around the country. Feed the Future in cooperation with top U.S. universities and developing countries research and develop solutions to tackle challenges in agriculture, food security, and nutrition where it is needed most.[55]

Training experiences deliverd by U.S. UniversitiesEdit

USAID and BIFAD have a long history of training foreign students at U.S. institutions of higher education. A total of 1,593 degree-seeking individuals were supported (2016) at institutions around the globe, 48% at U.S. institutions higher education another 5% are U.S. citizens working with Feed the Future Innovation Labs. Of the 1,593 individuals, the majority of sought degrees were in agriculture followed by, education, social science, business, science and math, medicine and public health, and arts and humanities (2016).

Organizational capacity development assisted by U.S. UniversitiesEdit

USAID and BIFAD along with other donors have invested in the strengthening of agricultural education and training to enable partner countries to develop a work force that is responsive to local and regional challenges.

Youth: The Next Generation of Food ProducersEdit

According to BIFAD the world's changing demographics require a greater focus on preparing youth for a productive future, BIFAD and USAID have thus invested in strengthening youth programming and has begun to integrate youth issues into their programs.

U.S. Distribution of investmentsEdit

USAID and BIFAD have invested over $334 million in higher education in 6 main categories. Health programming received the largest portion of funding, followed by economic growth, education, governance, program design, and disaster readiness (2016). Health was broken down into 9 sub-categories, HIV and AIDS received the largest portion of health funding followed by, family planning and reproductive health, malaria, maternal and child health, other public health threats, water and sanitation, tuberculosis, and emerging threats.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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