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Bi-scalar tensor vector gravity theory (BSTV)[1] is an extension of the tensor–vector–scalar gravity theory (TeVeS).[2] TeVeS is a relativistic generalization of Mordehai Milgrom's Modified Newtonian Dynamics MOND paradigm proposed by Jacob Bekenstein.[3] BSTV was proposed by R.H.Sanders. BSTV makes TeVeS more flexible by making a non-dynamical scalar field in TeVeS into a dynamical one.[4]


  1. ^ Sanders, R.H. (2005-07-01) A tensor-vector-scalar framework for modified dynamics and cosmic dark matter Cornell University Library, retrieved July 11, 2010
  2. ^ Jacob D. Bekenstein (2004), "Relativistic gravitation theory for the modified Newtonian dynamics paradigm", Phys. Rev. D, 70: 083509, arXiv:astro-ph/0403694, Bibcode:2004PhRvD..70h3509B, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.70.083509
  3. ^ M. Milgrom (1983), "A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis", Astrophys. J., 270: 365–370, Bibcode:1983ApJ...270..365M, doi:10.1086/161130
  4. ^ Zhao, HongSheng; Bacon, David J.; Taylor, Andy N.; Horne, Keith (2005-12-16) Testing Bekenstein's Relativistic MOND gravity with Lensing Data Cornell University Library, retrieved July 11, 2010