Battle of Kherlen
The Battle of Kherlen (Chinese: 臚朐河之戰) was a battle between the Northern Yuan dynasty of Mongolia and Ming China that took place at the banks of Kherlen River (Kerulen) in the Mongolian Plateau on 23 September 1409.
|Battle of Kherlen|
|Northern Yuan||Ming China|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Qiu Fu †|
After Bunyashiri had been crowned with the title of Öljei Temür in 1403, the Yongle Emperor sent an envoy to congratulate him and demand his submission in 1409. Öljei Temür Khagan Bunyashiri detained the envoy to express he was not willing to join the tributary relationship with the Ming. The leader Arughtai beheaded another envoy of the Yongle Emperor in the same year and declared his allegiance to the Khagan. The Eastern Mongols had been routed to the Kerulen River by recent attacks of the Oyirad Mongols, thus the Yongle Emperor took the opportunity for a punitive expedition. He send a force of 1,000 cavalry against the Eastern Mongols according to Ming chronicles, but the much-later History of Ming gave the unrealistic and exaggerated figure of 100,000.
Lured deep into the steppe of Mongolia, the Ming army was completely routed and defeated. The elite Ming General Qiu Fu, with several other commanders, were killed by Arughtai west of Onohu.
- Shih-Shan Henry Tsai-Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle, p.167
- Mote, Frederick W.; Twitchett, Denis, eds. (1988). The Cambridge History of China, Volume 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.
- Rossabi, Morris (1998). "The Ming and Inner Asia". In Twitchett, Dennis; Mote, Frederick W. (eds.). The Cambridge History of China, Volume 8: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-0-521-24333-9.
- Chan, Hok-lam (1988). "The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-hsi, and Hsüan-te reigns, 1399–1435". In Mote, Frederick W.; Twitchett, Denis (eds.). The Cambridge History of China, Volume 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.