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Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae. It contains mangrove trees, which occur in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas and are characterized by its "pencil roots" which are aerial roots. It is commonly known as api api which in the Malay language means "fires", a reference to the fact that fireflies often congregate on these trees.[2] Species of Avicennia occur worldwide south of the Tropic of Cancer.

Avicennia
Avicennia germinans.jpg
Avicennia germinans
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Acanthaceae
Subfamily: Avicennioideae
Miers
Genus: Avicennia
L.[1]
Species

See text

Synonyms

Sceura Forssk.[1]

The taxonomic placement of Avicennia is contentious. In some classifications it has been placed in the family Verbenaceae, but more recently has been placed by some botanists in the monogeneric family Avicenniaceae. Recent phylogenetic studies have suggested that Avicennia is derived from within Acanthaceae, and the genus is included in that family in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system.

Designation of species is made difficult by the great variations in form of Avicennia marina. Between eight and ten species are usually recognised, with Avicennia marina further divided into a number of subspecies.

The generic name honours Persian physician Avicenna (980-1037).[3]

Contents

DescriptionEdit

Members of the genus are among the most salt tolerant mangroves and are often the first to colonise new deposits of sediment. The sap is salty and excess salt is secreted through the leaves. The spreading root system provides stability in shifting substrates. There are vertical roots called pneumatophores projecting from the mud, thus the term "pencil roots". These are used in gas exchange as there is very little oxygen available in the mud. The flowers are fragrant and rich in nectar and are pollinated by insects. The embryos exhibit cryptovivipary, a process where they start to develop before the seed is shed but do not break through the outside of the fruit capsule.[4]

List of speciesEdit

 
Propagule of Avicennia sp.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Avicennia L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-03-30. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  2. ^ Api-api Putih (Avicennia alba) The Tide Chaser. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
  3. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 1 A-C. CRC Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2.
  4. ^ Api Api Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park. Retrieved 2012-02-08,
  5. ^ "Avicennia balanophora Stapf & Moldenke — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  6. ^ "Avicennia bicolor Standl. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  7. ^ "Avicennia germinans (L.) L. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  8. ^ "Avicennia integra N.C.Duke — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  9. ^ "Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  10. ^ "Avicennia marina subsp. australasica (Walp.) J.Everett — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  11. ^ "Avicennia marina subsp. eucalyptifolia (Valeton) J.Everett — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  12. ^ "Avicennia marina var. rumphiana (Hallier f.) Bakh. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  13. ^ "Avicennia officinalis L. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  14. ^ "Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  15. ^ "Avicennia tonduzii Moldenke — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.

Further readingEdit

  Media related to Avicennia at Wikimedia Commons

  Data related to Avicennia at Wikispecies

External linksEdit