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Austrosimulium is a genus of 31 species of black flies that are distributed in Australia and New Zealand. There are 2 subgenera: Austrosimulium whose species are principally from New Zealand, and Novaustrosimulium which are exclusively Australian.[1] Austrosimulium is a sister genus to the monospecific Paraustrosimulium of South America.[2]

Austrosimulium
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Simuliidae
Subfamily: Simuliinae
Tribe: Simuliini
Genus: Austrosimulium
Tonnoir, 1925
Type species
A. australense
(Schiner, 1868)
Species

See text

Some species are known to spread the protozoan blood parasite Leucocytozoon tawaki in penguins.[3][4][5]

In New Zealand, where they are known as sandflies, three species – A. australense, A. tillyardianum and A. ungulatum – bite humans.[6][7]

SpeciesEdit

Austrosimulium species as yet unplaced

Literature citedEdit

  1. ^ Peter H. Adler & Roger W. Crosskey (2009). "World Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae): A Comprehensive Revision of the Taxonomic and Geographical Inventory": 109. 
  2. ^ Craig, D.A.; Craig, R.E.G.; Crosby, T.K. (2012). Simuliidae (Insecta: Diptera). Fauna of New Zealand. 68. Manaaki Whenua Press. p. 11. 
  3. ^ Douglas A. Craig & Trevor K. Crosby (2008). "Gynandromorphs of New Zealand Austrosimulium spp. (Diptera: Simuliidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. New Zealand: Magnolia Press. 1811: 57–68. ISSN 1175-5334. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  4. ^ A. M. Fallis; S. A. Bisset; F. R. Allison (1976). "Leucocytozoon tawaki n.sp. (Eucoccida: Leucocytozoidae) from the penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, and preliminary observations on its development in Austrosimulium spp. (Diptera: Simuliidae)". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. Wellington, New Zealand: The Royal Society of New Zealand. 3 (1): 11–16. doi:10.1080/03014223.1976.9517893. 
  5. ^ a b T. K. Crosby (1976). "Austrosimulium (Austrosimulium) dumbletoni n.sp. from New Zealand (Diptera: Simuliidae)". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. Wellington, New Zealand: The Royal Society of New Zealand. 3 (1): 17–19. doi:10.1080/03014223.1976.9517894. 
  6. ^ Early, John (2009). Know your New Zealand ... native insects & spiders. New Holland. p. 120. ISBN 9781869662530. 
  7. ^ Walrond, Carl (24 September 2007). "Sandflies and mosquitoes - Sandflies: New Zealand's blackflies". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Craig, D.A.; Craig, R.E.G.; Crosby, T.K. 2012: Simuliidae (Insecta: Diptera). Fauna of New Zealand, (68)

External linksEdit