Traditionally, bibliometrics have been used to evaluate the usage and impact of research, but have usually been focused on journal-level metrics such as the impact factor or researcher-level metrics such as the h-index. Article-level metrics, on the other hand, may demonstrate the impact of an individual article. This is related to, but distinct from, altmetrics.
Starting in March 2009, the Public Library of Science introduced article-level metrics for all articles. The open access publisher PLOS provides article level metrics for all of its journals including downloads, citations, and altmetrics. In March 2014 it was announced that COUNTER statistics, which measure usage of online scholarly resources, are now available at the article level. The individual impact index statistic, known as the i3, was developed by Dr. Jacques Balayla and employs a novel method to provide a standardized article-level metric .
- "Article-Level Metrics". SPARC. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Article-Level Metrics: A Sparc Primer" (PDF). SPARC. April 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Article-Level Metrics Information". PLoS ONE. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
- "Overview". PLOS: Article-Level Metrics. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Pattinson, Damian (March 2014). "The future is open: opportunities for publishers and institutions" (PDF). Insights. 27 (1): 38–44. doi:10.1629/2048-7754.139. Retrieved 18 March 2014.[permanent dead link]
- "Introduction to Release 1 of the COUNTER Code of Practice for Articles". COUNTER. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "The Individual Impact Index (i3) Statistic: A novel article-level metric". Dr. Jacques Balayla. Retrieved 4 March 2018.