Arriba (Spanish for "up") was a Spanish daily newspaper published in Madrid between 1935 and 1979. It was the official organ of the Falange, and also of the regime during the Franco rule in the country.
|Founder(s)||José Antonio Primo de Rivera|
|Founded||21 March 1935|
|Ceased publication||16 June 1979|
Arriba was first published in Madrid 21 March 1935 by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange Española. The paper soon became the official weekly newspaper of the Spanish Falange. On 5 March 1936 it was suspended by the government of the Second Spanish Republic. The suspension continued through the Spanish Civil War. After nearly three years of fighting, Madrid was captured by Nationalist troops under Francisco Franco. The Falangists seized the facilities of the newspaper El Sol and, beginning 29 March 1939, published a revived Arriba as the daily newspaper of the Movimiento Nacional. It soon became the official newspaper of the Spanish State under Franco.
Antisemitism, anti-Freemasonry, and anti-CommunismEdit
Franco believed in the international Judeo-Masonic-Communist conspiracy theory. He believed that Jews, Freemasons and Communists were conspiring to destroy Christianity in general and Spain in particular. Franco's Antisemitism was not racialised, as was that of the Nazis: it was more along the lines of historic Catholic anti-Judaism. Arriba's Antisemitism, in line with Franco's own, was virulent, and was followed in some cases by incidents of anti-Jewish violence.
The campaign against SepuEdit
Sepu (Sociedad Española de Precios Únicos), Spain's first department store, was founded in Barcelona on 9 January 1934 by Swiss citizens of Jewish origin, Henry Reisembach and Edouard Wormsde, who also opened a second store in Madrid. In the 1930s they were the subject of a vigorous campaign on the part of the Falange. Arriba directly accused the company of exploiting its employees while taking advantage of links to political power:
These Jews of SEPU provide grounds to deal with them daily, by their relations with the employees they exploit. If their mere presence suffices to produce indignation, if the outrages committed by their staff suffice to rouse the most tranquil. We ask, does SEPU enjoy carte blanche? Who covers for SEPU? Does the director of [the Ministry of] Labor know the cases of SEPU?
This campaign began with the first issue of the newspaper and was systematic. It was contemporaneous with, and inspired by, the Nazi assaults on Jewish-owned businesses in Germany. In 1935, the Sepu department store in Madrid was assaulted by Falangist militants; the store's windows were broken on several occasions. That same year, Arriba wrote:
Arriba carried a series of articles by Franco himself (compiled in 1952 under the title Masonería, "(Free)Masonry"). The series began on 14 December 1946 and was signed with the pseudonym Jakin Boor. The articles rant against Freemasonry, Communism, Jews, and (later in the series) the State of Israel. Israel had voted against admitting Spain into the United Nations and accused Franco's government of being complicit with and supportive of the former Nazi regime of Adolf Hitler in Germany and the former Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini in Italy. On 9 August 1949 Franco wrote an article in Arriba entitled "Alta masonería" ("High Masonry"):
The recognition of Israel, its entry into the UN, the hypocritical and unjust conduct toward Spain, the enmity against Argentina, the systematic opposition in the government of the state, the great decisions about the national order, obey exclusively the dictates of (Free)Masonry.
On 11 December 1949 he wrote:
To so extend (Free)Masonry through various nations faced with a people deeply entrenched in the society we live, who see an ideal field for machinations in the sect that comes dragging a secular complex of inferiority and of rancor from their dispersion: they are the Jews of the world, the army of speculators accustomed to break or skirt the law, which benefits the sect to be considered powerful. Judaism, atheism and Catholic dissidence feed thence the continental lodges.
- Jacob Fox Watkins (2014). "Not Just "Franco 's Spain" - The Spanish Political Landscape During Re-Emergence through the Pact of Madrid". Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies. 39 (1). Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Gabriel Jackson (5 May 2012). Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931-1939. Princeton University Press. p. 555. ISBN 978-1-4008-2018-4. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Asuncion Bernardez (1991). "The Mass Media" (Book chapter). Graves retrasos a - E-Prints Complutense. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Joseph Pérez (2005), p. 312/322.
- "Estos judíos de SEPU dan motivos para ocuparse de ellos diariamente, por sus relaciones con los empleados que explotan. Si basta su sola presencia para producir indignación, si hasta los atropellos que con su personal cometen basta para sublevar al más tranquilo. Nosotros preguntamos ¿SEPU disfruta de patente de corso? ¿Quién ampara a SEPU? ¿Conoce el director de Trabajo los casos de SEPU?"—"Siempre Sepu", Arriba, 12 June 1935 (cited in Isidro González (2004), p. 272).
- Isidro González (2004), pp. 271, 272.
- Gonzalo Álvarez Chillida (2002), p. 343.
- "La internacional conspiración judaico-masónica es la creadora de los dos grandes males que han llegado a la humanidad: como son el capitalismo y el marxismo."—Arriba, 18 April 1935 (cited in Gonzalo Álvarez Chillida (2002), p. 343).
- "El reconocimiento de Israel, su entrada en la ONU, la conducta hipócrita e injusta con España, la enemiga contra la Argentina, la oposición sistemática en el gobierno del Estado, las mayores decisiones en el orden nacional, obedecen exclusivamente a los dictados de la masonería."—Arriba, 9 August 1949.
- "Al extenderse así la masonería por las distintas naciones tropieza con un pueblo enquistado en la sociedad en que vive, que ve en la secta un campo ideal para las maquinaciones a que un complejo secular de inferioridad y de rencor desde la dispersión le viene arrastrando: son los judíos del mundo, el ejército de especuladores acostumbrados a quebrantar o bordear la ley, que se acoge a la secta para considerarse poderosos. Judaísmo, ateísmo y disidencia católica nutren desde entonces las logias continentales."—Arriba, 11 December 1949.
- Gonzalo Álvarez Chillida (2002). El antisemitismo en España: la imagen del judío, 1812-2002. Madrid: Marcial Pons Historia. ISBN 84-95379-44-9.
- Isidro González (2004). Los judíos y la Segunda República. 1931-1939. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. ISBN 84-206-4598-2.
- Lisbona, José Antonio (2004). España-Israel. Historia de unas relaciones secretas. Madrid: Temas de Hoy. ISBN 84-8460-189-7.
- Joseph Pérez (2005). Los judíos en España. Madrid: Marcial Pons Historia. ISBN 84-96467-03-1.