Armeria maritima, the thrift, sea thrift or sea pink, is a species of flowering plant in the family Plumbaginaceae. It is a compact evergreen perennial which grows in low clumps and sends up long stems that support globes of bright pink flowers. In some cases purple, white or red flowers also occur. It is a popular garden flower and has been distributed worldwide as a garden and cut flower. It does well in gardens designed as xeriscapes or rock gardens. The Latin specific epithet maritima means pertaining to the sea or coastal.[2]

Armeria maritima
Armeria maritima at Dunnet Head, Scotland
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Plumbaginaceae
Genus: Armeria
A. maritima
Binomial name
Armeria maritima
  • Androsace macloviana Cham.
  • Armeria armeria (L.) H.Karst. nom. inval.
  • Armeria campestris Wallr.
  • Armeria duriuscula Bab.
  • Armeria elongata Koch
  • Armeria expansa Wallr.
  • Armeria intermedia Link ex Boiss.
  • Armeria miscella Merino
  • Armeria montana G.Don ex Loudon
  • Armeria planifolia Nyman
  • Armeria pubescens B.Heyne ex Steud.
  • Armeria pubescens Link
  • Armeria rhenana Gremli
  • Armeria vulgaris Willd.
  • Statice armeria L.
  • Statice maritima Mill.

Subspecies edit

  • Armeria maritima subsp. azorica, Franco[3]
  • Armeria maritima subsp. californica, synonym: California Seapink[4][5]
  • Armeria maritima subsp. elongata, synonym: Tall Thrift, Gaston Bonnier.[6]
  • Armeria maritima subsp. maritima[7]
  • Armeria maritima subsp. purpurea, synonym: Armeria purpurea W.D.J.Koch, (W.D.J.Koch) Á.Löve and D.Löve[8]
  • Armeria maritima subsp. sibirica, synonym: Siberian Sea Thrift, Turczaninow ex Boissier[9][10]

Distribution and habitat edit

Armeria maritima californica at Pescadero State Beach in California.

Armeria maritima sensu lato has a circumpolar distribution can be found in the wild in coastal areas across the Northern Hemisphere.[11] It can grow in dry, sandy, saline conditions such as coastal cliffs, grassland and salt marshes, salted roadsides and inland on mountain rocks.[12]: 434 [13]: 70  It is a common sight in British salt marshes, where it flowers April to October.[14]

Armeria maritima has a great copper-tolerance, and is able to grow in soils with copper concentrations of up to 6400 mg/kg. One mechanism proposed is that not much copper is transported up the shoot of the plant, and is excreted from decaying leaves.[15] Some of the physiology and metabolism of this species has been described, of particular note is how the metabolism of this species is altered with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.[16]

Ecology edit

Armeria maritima with bee (Hiddensee Island)

Pollination is by various insects including bees and Lepidoptera.

It is a known host species to the pathogenic fungus Phoma herbarum.[17]

Conservation edit

Armeria maritima is a common species in the UK, however there are several subspecies and in England, subspecies elongata (Tall Thrift) has vulnerable conservation status and is designated as a species of principal importance for biodiversity conservation under the NERC Act (2006).

Cultivation edit

The cultivar 'Vindictive' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[18]

In popular culture edit

A 1943 threepence (British coin)

The British threepence coin issued between 1937 and 1952 had a design of thrift on the reverse. In British slang, thrifty means to have bought a lot for very little money and the phrase is thought to be the reason why thrift was used as the emblem for the threepence coin (not worth very much money).[19][20]

As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife chose sea thrift as the county flower of the Isles of Scilly.

References edit

  1. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 11 May 2016
  2. ^ "Armeria maritima - Plant Finder". Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  3. ^ "Armeria maritima subsp. azorica Franco | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  4. ^ "California Sea Pink, Armeria maritima ssp. californica". Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  5. ^ "Armeria maritima ssp. californica". Archived from the original on 2021-04-17. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  6. ^ "Armeria maritima subsp. elongata (Hoffm.) Bonnier". Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  7. ^ "Armeria maritima subsp. maritima in Flora of North America". Archived from the original on 2006-06-21. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  8. ^ "Armeria purpurea W.D.J.Koch". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  9. ^ "Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center". The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 2021-04-21. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  10. ^ "Armeria maritima subsp. sibirica in Flora of North America". Archived from the original on 2006-06-21. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  11. ^ Anderberg, Arne. "Den Virtuella Floran: Trift, Armeria maritima Willd". Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  12. ^ Stace, C. A. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521707725.
  13. ^ Blamey, M.; Fitter, R.; Fitter, A (2003). Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland: The Complete Guide to the British and Irish Flora. London: A & C Black. ISBN 978-1408179505.
  14. ^ Wildlife Trusts - Thrift
  15. ^ Brewin LE, Mehra A, Lynch PT, Farago ME (March 2003). "Mechanisms of copper tolerance by Armeria maritima in Dolfrwyong Bog, north Wales—initial studies" (PDF). Environ Geochem Health. 25 (1): 147–56. doi:10.1023/a:1021225721605. PMID 12901090. S2CID 36813793.
  16. ^ Davey, M. P.; Harmens, H.; Ashenden, T. W.; Edwards, R.; Baxter, R. (2007). "Species-specific effects of elevated CO2 on resource allocation in Plantago maritima and Armeria maritima". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 35 (3): 121. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2006.09.004.
  17. ^ Helgi Hallgrímsson & Guðríður Gyða Eyjólfsdóttir (2004). Íslenskt sveppatal I - smásveppir [Checklist of Icelandic Fungi I - Microfungi. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar. Náttúrufræðistofnun Íslands [Icelandic Institute of Natural History]. ISSN 1027-832X
  18. ^ "Armeria maritima 'Vindictive'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  19. ^ "thrift noun - Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes | Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at". Retrieved 2022-05-06.
  20. ^ "Thrift on old three pence coin".

External links edit