Architectural pattern

An architectural pattern is a general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software architecture within a given context.[1] The architectural patterns address various issues in software engineering, such as computer hardware performance limitations, high availability and minimization of a business risk. Some architectural patterns have been implemented within software frameworks.

The use of the word "pattern" in the software industry was influenced by similar concepts in expressed in traditional architecture, such as Christopher Alexander's A Pattern Language (1977) which discussed the practice in terms of establishing a pattern lexicon, prompting the practitioners of computer science to contemplate their own design lexicon.

Usage of this metaphor within the software engineering profession become commonplace after the publication of Design Patterns (1994) by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides—now commonly known as the "Gang of Four"—coincident with the early years of the public Internet, marking the onset of complex software systems "eating the world"[2] and the corresponding need to codify the rapidly sprawling world of software development at the deepest possible level, while remaining flexible and adaptive.

Architectural patterns are similar to software design patterns but have a broader scope.

DefinitionEdit

Even though an architectural pattern conveys an image of a system, it is not an architecture. An architectural pattern is a concept that solves and delineates some essential cohesive elements of a software architecture. Countless different architectures may implement the same pattern and share the related characteristics. Patterns are often defined as "strictly described and commonly available".[3][4]

Architectural styleEdit

Following traditional building architecture, a 'software architectural style' is a specific method of construction, characterized by the features that make it notable.

An architectural style defines: a family of systems in terms of a pattern of structural organization; a vocabulary of components and connectors, with constraints on how they can be combined.[5]

An architectural style is a named collection of architectural design decisions that (1) are applicable in a given development context, (2) constrain architectural design decisions that are specific to a particular system within that context, and (3) elicit beneficial qualities in each resulting system.[1]

Some treat architectural patterns and architectural styles as the same,[6] some treat styles as specializations of patterns. What they have in common is both patterns and styles are idioms for architects to use, they "provide a common language"[6] or "vocabulary"[5] with which to describe classes of systems.

The main difference is that a pattern can be seen as a solution to a problem, while a style is more general and does not require a problem to solve for its appearance.

ExamplesEdit

Here is a list of architecture patterns, and corresponding software design patterns and solution patterns.

Sub-domain area Architecture pattern Software design patterns Solution patterns Related patterns
Data integration/SOA
  • One-way
  • Synchronous request/response
  • Basic callback
  • Claim check
Data architecture
  • Custom applications databases
  • Packaged application databases
  • ETL
  • EAI
  • SOA
Analytics and business intelligence
  • Transactional reporting
  • Operational analytics
  • Business analytics
  • Predictive analytics
  • Prescriptive analytics
  • Streaming analytics
  • Data science and advanced analytics
  • NLP
  • Transactional reporting data access
  • Operational reporting data access
  • Analytical reporting data access
  • Analytical dashboard data access
  • Operational dashboard data access
  • Data mining
  • ETL
  • EAI
  • TDS
  • Operational data store
  • Data mart
Master data management
  • Master data hub
  • Master data replication
  • Master data services
  • Master data synchronization
Data modeling
  • Modeling standards
  • Naming conventions
Artificial intelligence
  • Decision management
  • Speech recognition
  • Text analytics and NLP
  • Natural language generation
  • Classic machine learning
  • Deep learning
  • Robotic process automation
  • Image and video analysis

Some additional examples of architectural patterns:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b R. N. Taylor, N. Medvidović and E. M. Dashofy, Software architecture: Foundations, Theory and Practice. Wiley, 2009.
  2. ^ Andreessen, Marc (20 August 2011). "Why Software Is Eating The World". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  3. ^ Chang, Chih-Hung; Lu, Chih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hao; Yang, Ming-Feng; Tsai, Ching-Fu (June 2008). "An Experience of Applying Pattern-based Software Framework to Improve the Quality of Software Development: 4. The Design and Implementation of OS2F". Journal of Software Engineering Studies, Vol. 2, No. 6. the Third Taiwan Conference on Software Engineering (TCSE07). pp. 185–194. Archived from the original on 2011-09-22. Retrieved 2012-05-16. Furthermore, patterns are often defined as something "strictly described and commonly available". For example, layered architecture is a call-and-return style, when it defines an overall style to interact.
  4. ^ "Architectural Patterns: Definition". AAHN INFOTECH (INDIA) PVT. LTD. Archived from the original on 2012-06-23. Retrieved 2012-05-16. Even though an architectural pattern conveys an image of a system, it is not an architecture as such. An architectural pattern is rather a concept that solves and delineates some essential cohesive elements of a software architecture. Countless different architectures may implement the same pattern and thereby share the related characteristics. Furthermore, patterns are often defined as something "strictly described and commonly available".
  5. ^ a b M. Shaw and D. Garlan, Software architecture: perspectives on an emerging discipline. Prentice Hall, 1996.
  6. ^ a b "Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and Styles".

BibliographyEdit

  • Avgeriou, Paris; Uwe Zdun (2005). "Architectural patterns revisited:a pattern language". 10th European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPlop 2005), Irsee, Germany, July.
  • Bass L.; Clements P.; Kazman R. (2005). Software Architecture in Practice: Second Edition. Addison-Wesley.