An architectural pattern is a general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software architecture within a given context. The architectural patterns address various issues in software engineering, such as computer hardware performance limitations, high availability and minimization of a business risk. Some architectural patterns have been implemented within software frameworks.
The use of the word "pattern" in the software industry was influenced by similar concepts in expressed in traditional architecture, such as Christopher Alexander's A Pattern Language (1977) which discussed the practice in terms of establishing a pattern lexicon, prompting the practitioners of computer science to contemplate their own design lexicon.
Usage of this metaphor within the software engineering profession become commonplace after the publication of Design Patterns (1994) by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides—now commonly known as the "Gang of Four"—coincident with the early years of the public Internet, marking the onset of complex software systems "eating the world" and the corresponding need to codify the rapidly sprawling world of software development at the deepest possible level, while remaining flexible and adaptive.
Architectural patterns are similar to software design patterns but have a broader scope.
Even though an architectural pattern conveys an image of a system, it is not an architecture. An architectural pattern is a concept that solves and delineates some essential cohesive elements of a software architecture. Countless different architectures may implement the same pattern and share the related characteristics. Patterns are often defined as "strictly described and commonly available".
Following traditional building architecture, a 'software architectural style' is a specific method of construction, characterized by the features that make it notable.
An architectural style defines: a family of systems in terms of a pattern of structural organization; a vocabulary of components and connectors, with constraints on how they can be combined.
An architectural style is a named collection of architectural design decisions that (1) are applicable in a given development context, (2) constrain architectural design decisions that are specific to a particular system within that context, and (3) elicit beneficial qualities in each resulting system.
Some treat architectural patterns and architectural styles as the same, some treat styles as specializations of patterns. What they have in common is both patterns and styles are idioms for architects to use, they "provide a common language" or "vocabulary" with which to describe classes of systems.
The main difference is that a pattern can be seen as a solution to a problem, while a style is more general and does not require a problem to solve for its appearance.
|Sub-domain area||Architecture pattern||Software design patterns||Solution patterns||Related patterns|
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Some additional examples of architectural patterns:
- Blackboard system
- Broker pattern
- Event-driven architecture
- Implicit invocation
- Hexagonal architecture
- Action–domain–responder, Model–view–controller, Presentation–abstraction–control, Model–view–presenter, and Model–view–viewmodel
- Entity component system
- Multitier architecture (often three-tier or n-tier)
- Naked objects
- Operational data store (ODS)
- Pipe and filter architecture
- Service-oriented architecture
- Space-based architecture
- Distributed hash table
- R. N. Taylor, N. Medvidović and E. M. Dashofy, Software architecture: Foundations, Theory and Practice. Wiley, 2009.
- Andreessen, Marc (20 August 2011). "Why Software Is Eating The World". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
- Chang, Chih-Hung; Lu, Chih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hao; Yang, Ming-Feng; Tsai, Ching-Fu (June 2008). "An Experience of Applying Pattern-based Software Framework to Improve the Quality of Software Development: 4. The Design and Implementation of OS2F". Journal of Software Engineering Studies, Vol. 2, No. 6. the Third Taiwan Conference on Software Engineering (TCSE07). pp. 185–194. Archived from the original on 2011-09-22. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
Furthermore, patterns are often defined as something "strictly described and commonly available". For example, layered architecture is a call-and-return style, when it defines an overall style to interact.
- "Architectural Patterns: Definition". AAHN INFOTECH (INDIA) PVT. LTD. Archived from the original on 2012-06-23. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
Even though an architectural pattern conveys an image of a system, it is not an architecture as such. An architectural pattern is rather a concept that solves and delineates some essential cohesive elements of a software architecture. Countless different architectures may implement the same pattern and thereby share the related characteristics. Furthermore, patterns are often defined as something "strictly described and commonly available".
- M. Shaw and D. Garlan, Software architecture: perspectives on an emerging discipline. Prentice Hall, 1996.
- "Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and Styles".
- Avgeriou, Paris; Uwe Zdun (2005). "Architectural patterns revisited:a pattern language". 10th European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPlop 2005), Irsee, Germany, July.
- Buschmann F.; Meunier R.; Rohnert H.; Sommerlad P.; Stal M. (1996). Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture: A System of Patterns. John Wiley & Sons.
- Bass L.; Clements P.; Kazman R. (2005). Software Architecture in Practice: Second Edition. Addison-Wesley.