Ants Piip VR III/1 (also Anton or Hans Piip; 28 February [O.S. 16 February] 1884 in Tuhalaane, Viljandi County – 1 October 1942 in Nyrobsky camp, Perm Oblast, Russia) was an Estonian lawyer, diplomat and politician. Piip was the 1st Head of State of Estonia and the 5th Prime Minister of Estonia. Piip played a key role in internationalising the independence aspirations of Estonia during the Paris Peace Conference following World War I.
|1st State Elder of Estonia|
20 December 1920 – 25 January 1921
as Prime Minister
|Succeeded by||Konstantin Päts|
|5th Prime Minister of Estonia|
26 October 1920 – 20 December 1920
|Preceded by||Jaan Tõnisson|
as State Elder
|Born||28 February 1884|
Tuhalaane, Kreis Fellin, Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire
|Died||1 October 1942 (aged 58)|
Nyrobsky camp, Molotov Oblast, Soviet Union
|Political party||Estonian Labour Party, later none|
|Profession||lawyer, diplomat, politician|
Son of a small independent farmer, Piip took his high school exams at the Kuressaare State High School and studied at Teachers' Seminar in Kuldīga (formerly Goldingen), now in Latvia. In 1903–1905, he was a parish clerk and schoolteacher at Alūksne, also a teacher in the Emperor Nikolai Greek Orthodox Parish School in Kuressaare in 1905–1906, in the Kuressaare Marine School in 1906–1912, and in the Janson Merchant School in Saint Petersburg in 1913–1915. He studied at the law department of the Saint Petersburg University in 1908–1913 and received a scientific scholarship from the Saint Petersburg University in 1913–1916, during that time he worked in the Russian Justice and Interior Ministries. Piip took additional courses in the Berlin University in 1912.
Piip was a member of the Estonian Province Assembly (Estonian: Maapäev), and later a member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), and after that, of the Riigikogu. In 1917–1919, Piip was a member of the Estonian Foreign Mission in Saint Petersburg and in London, he participated in the Paris Peace Conference. In 1919 he was Deputy to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1919–1920 Member of the Estonian delegation in the Tartu peace negotiations between Estonia and the Russian SFSR. In 1919–1940 he was Professor of International Law in Tartu University. In 1920, he was the diplomatic representative the Republic of Estonia in Great Britain. 1920–1921, while Head of State, Piip was also the Minister of War. He held position of Minister of Foreign Affairs five times, also he was in 1923–1925 the Envoy of Estonia to the United States of America. During 1938–1940, Piip was also member of the Riigivolikogu (first chamber of the Riigikogu).
The law of history is the following: if the nations inhabiting the shores of the Baltic Sea are not able to create between themselves a stronger organisation, they are doomed inevitably to submit to a stronger European power of the respective period.
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