Antimony pentoxide (molecular formula: Sb2O5) is a chemical compound of antimony and oxygen. It always occurs in hydrated form, Sb2O5·nH2O. It contains antimony in the +5 oxidation state.
3D model (JSmol)
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|Molar mass||323.517 g/mol|
|Appearance||yellow, powdery solid|
|Density||3.78 g/cm3, solid|
|Melting point||380 °C (716 °F; 653 K) (decomposes)|
|0.3 g/100 mL|
|Solubility||insoluble in nitric acid|
Heat capacity (C)
|117.69 J/mol K|
Std enthalpy of
|GHS Signal word||Warning|
|H302, H315, H319, H335, H411|
|P261, P264, P270, P271, P273, P280, P301+312, P302+352, P304+340, P305+351+338, P312, P321, P330, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P391, P403+233, P405, P501|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb)|
|TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Antimony pentoxide has the same structure as the B form of niobium pentoxide and can be derived from the rutile structure, with antimony coordinated by six oxygen atoms in a distorted octahedral arrangement. The SbO6 octahedra are corner- and edge-sharing.
The hydrated oxide is prepared by hydrolysis of antimony pentachloride; or by acidification of potassium hexahydroxoantimonate(V). It may also be prepared by oxidation of antimony trioxide with nitric acid.
Antimony pentoxide finds use as a flame retardant in ABS and other plastics and as a flocculant in the production of titanium dioxide, and is sometimes used in the production of glass, paint and adhesives.
Properties and reactionsEdit
When heated to 700 °C (1,290 °F), the yellow hydrated pentoxide converts to an anhydrous white solid with the formula Sb6O13, containing both antimony(III) and antimony(V). Heating to 900 °C (1,650 °F) produces a white, insoluble powder of Sb2O4 in both α and β forms. The β form consists of antimony(V) in octahedral interstices and pyramidal SbIIIO4 units. In these compounds, the antimony(V) atom is octahedrally coordinated to six hydroxy groups.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0036". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- M. Jansen (March 1979). "Die Kristallstruktur von Antimon(V)-oxid". Acta Crystallogr. B. 35 (3): 539–542. doi:10.1107/S056774087900409X.
- Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
- Bartlett, Jeffrey (1997-03-19). "Colloidal Antimony Pentoxide in Flame Retarded ABS". Nyacol Products, Inc. Archived from the original on 3 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-28.
- "ANTIMONY PENTOXIDE". chemicalLAND21.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-28.
- Pradyot Patnaik (2002). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill. p. 54. ISBN 0-07-049439-8.
- "Antimony" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 606.