The order was established by Carl Linnaeus in the first edition of his book Systema Naturae (1735) for genera Homo (humans), Simia (monkeys and apes in general) and Bradypus (sloths). The taxon is notable for the history of human taxonomy as the first to combine apes (Linnaeus' Simia) and humans under the same clade.
In the 1758 edition of the same book, Linnaeus discarded this name and began to use the word Primates, which has replaced Anthropomorpha completely. A dissertation on the Anthropomorpha was published by Linnaeus' student Christian Emmanuel Hoppius in 1760.
The name is no longer considered valid, as the animals that were included within Anthropomorpha are now believed to belong to multiple clades. For example, two-toed sloths were included within Anthropomorpha, but are now considered to be in the family Megalonychidae, which is not closely related to the primates.Comte de Buffon[year needed] correctly rejected the combination of sloths and primates within the same order.
- Porter, N., ed. (1913). Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. G & C. Merriam.
- Linnaeus, C. (1735). Systema naturae sive regna tria Naturae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species. apud Theodorum Haak, Lugduni Batavorum. pp. s.p.
- Sven Horstadius, Linnaeus, animals and man[permanent dead link], Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 6 (December 1974), 269–275 (p. 273).
- C. E. Hoppius, "Anthropomorpha", Amoenitates Academicae, 6 September 1760.
- Conniff, R. (December 30, 2007). "Forgotten, Yes. But Happy Birthday Anyway". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-22.[unreliable source?]
- Gardner, A. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.