Annonins are a group of chemical compounds classified as acetogenins. They are found in the extracts of Annona seeds (A. squamosa and A. muricata).[1][2] Annonin-based bioinsecticides are used to control Coleoptera (beetle) pests commonly found in stored organic cereal and beans in the country of Brazil.[3] Other different types of annonin-based insecticides, derived from A. mucosa, fight off lepidopteran (moth) pests that infest cabbage leaves, also found in the tropical climates of Brazil. The benefit of using these bioinsecticides is their relatively low cost and no phytotoxicity.[4] These annonin molecules act as overpowering inhibitors of complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in the electron-transport chain in the mitochondria of quarry pests. In cell membranes of these same pests, annonins also inhibit coenzyme NADH, causing these arthropods to die.[5]

Chemical structure of annonin I


  1. ^ Londershausen, Michael; Leicht, Wolfgang; Lieb, Folker; Moeschler, Heinrich; Weiss, Hanns (1991). "Molecular mode of action of annonins". Pesticide Science. 33 (4): 427. doi:10.1002/ps.2780330405.
  2. ^ Wani JA, Wali AF, Majid S, Rasool S, Rehman MU, Rashid SM, Ali S, Farooq S, Rasool S, Ahmad A, Qamar W (2020). "Bio-pesticides: Application and possible mechanism of action". Bioremediation and Biotechnology. 2: 97–119. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-40333-1_6.
  3. ^ Ribeiro, L. P.; Zanardi, O. Z.; Gonçalves, G. L. P.; Ansante, T. F.; Yamamoto, P. T.; Vendramim, J. D. (2017-03-28). "Toxicity of an Annonin-Based Commercial Bioinsecticide Against Three Primary Pest Species of Stored Products". Springer. Neotropical Entomology. doi:10.1007/s13744-017-0510-6#sec7. Retrieved 2020-04-26.
  4. ^ Souza, Camila M.; Baldin, Edson L. L.; Ribeiro, Leandro P.; Silva, Ivana F.; Morando, Rafaela; Bicalho, Keylla U.; Vendramim, José D.; Fernandes, João B. (2018-12-10). "Lethal and growth inhibitory activities of Neotropical Annonaceae-derived extracts, commercial formulation, and an isolated acetogenin against Helicoverpa armigera". Journal of Pest Science. Retrieved 2020-04-26.
  5. ^ Lewis, M.A.; Arnason, J.T.; Philogene, B.J.R.; Rupprecht, J.K.; Mclaughlin, J.L. (January 1993). "Inhibition of Respiration at Site I by Asimicin, an Insecticidal Acetogenin of the Pawpaw, Asimina triloba (Annonaceae)". Volume 45, Issue 1. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. pp. Pages 15-23. doi:10.1006/pest.1993.1003. Retrieved 2020-04-27.