Annette Joanne Funicello (October 22, 1942 – April 8, 2013) was an American actress and singer. Funicello began her professional career as a child performer at the age of twelve. She rose to prominence as one of the most popular Mouseketeers on the original Mickey Mouse Club. As a teenager, she transitioned to a successful career as a singer with the pop singles "O Dio Mio", "First Name Initial", "Tall Paul" and "Pineapple Princess", as well as establishing herself as a film actress, popularizing the successful "Beach Party" genre alongside co-star Frankie Avalon during the mid-1960s.
Annette Joanne Funicello
October 22, 1942
Utica, New York, U.S.
|Died||April 8, 2013 (aged 70)|
Bakersfield, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Complications from multiple sclerosis|
|Occupation||Actress and singer|
Jack L. Gilardi
(m. 1965; div. 1981)
Glen D. Holt
Annette Joanne Funicello was born in Utica, New York, to Italian Americans Virginia Jeanne (née Albano) and Joseph Edward Funicello. Her family moved to Southern California when she was four years old.
The Mickey Mouse ClubEdit
Funicello took dancing and music lessons when she was a child in order to overcome her shyness. In 1955, the 12-year-old was discovered by Walt Disney when she performed as the Swan Queen in Swan Lake at a dance recital at the Starlight Bowl in Burbank, California. Disney cast her as one of the original Mouseketeers. She was the last to be selected, and one of the few cast-members to be personally selected by Walt Disney himself.
Funicello proved to be very popular, and by the end of the first season of The Mickey Mouse Club, she was receiving 6,000 letters a month, according to her Disney Legends biography – more than any other Mouseketeer.
She had a crush on fellow Mouseketeer Lonnie Burr. In 1958, at the finale of the show, she had to say goodbye to each of the members of its cast, and, in her own words, "I never cried so hard in my life".
In addition to appearing in many Mouseketeer sketches and dance routines, Funicello starred in several serials on The Mickey Mouse Club. These included Adventure in Dairyland, the second and third Spin and Marty serials – The Further Adventures of Spin and Marty (1956) and The New Adventures of Spin and Marty (1957), and Walt Disney Presents: Annette (1958) (which co-starred Richard Deacon).
In several scenes in the Annette serial, she performed the song that launched her singing career. The studio received so much mail about "How Will I Know My Love" (lyrics by Tom Adair, music by Frances Jeffords and William Walsh, that Walt Disney issued it as a single, and gave Funicello (somewhat unwillingly) a recording contract.
A proposed live-action feature Rainbow Road to Oz was to have starred some of the Mouseketeers, including Darlene Gillespie as Dorothy and Funicello as Ozma. Preview segments from the film aired on September 11, 1957, on Disneyland's fourth anniversary show. By then, MGM's The Wizard of Oz had already been shown on CBS Television for the first time. Theories on why the film was abandoned include Disney's failure to develop a satisfactory script, and the popularity of the MGM film on television. Disney ultimately replaced this film project with a new adaptation of Babes in Toyland (1961), which starred Funicello as "Mary Contrary".
Post-Mickey Mouse ClubEdit
After the Mickey Mouse Club, she remained under contract with Disney for a time. She had a role on the Disney television series Zorro, playing Anita Cabrillo in a three-episode storyline about a teen-aged girl arriving in Los Angeles to visit a father who does not seem to exist. This role was reportedly a birthday present for her 16th birthday from Walt Disney, and it was the first of two different characters who she played opposite Guy Williams as Zorro.
Although uncomfortable being thought of as a singer, Funicello had a number of pop record hits in the late 1950s and early 1960s, mostly written by the Sherman Brothers and including: "Tall Paul", "First Name Initial", "O Dio Mio", "Train of Love" (written by Paul Anka) and "Pineapple Princess". They were released by Disney's Buena Vista label. Annette also recorded "It's Really Love" in 1959, a reworking of an earlier Paul Anka song called "Toot Sweet". Paul Anka was noted to have a crush on her; however, Walt Disney protected the underage Annette from Anka's advances. He was only a year older than her, but Walt kept her closely guarded. This resulted in Anka's song "Puppy Love", which was inspired by his hopelessly unlikely romantic crush on Annette.
In an episode of the Disney anthology television series titled "Disneyland After Dark", Funicello can be seen singing live at Disneyland. Walt Disney was reportedly a fan of 1950s pop star Teresa Brewer and tried to pattern Funicello's singing on the same style. However, Funicello credits "the Annette sound" to her record producer, Tutti Camarata, who worked for Disney in that era. Camarata had her double-track her vocals, matching her first track as closely as possible on the second recording to achieve a fuller sound than her voice would otherwise produce. Early in her career, she appeared on the NBC interview program Here's Hollywood.
In December 1959, Funicello attempted to have her contract with Disney set aside, claiming that it was unequitable and that she was without an agent or legal counsel when she signed it. She was on $325 a week (About $3000 in 2020 dollars). The court refused.
Return to DisneyEdit
She also appeared in two television movies filmed in Europe for Disney alongside Kirk, both of which were released theatrically in some markets: The Horsemasters (1961), shot in England, and Escapade in Florence (1962), filmed in Italy.
Beach party seriesEdit
Funicello moved on from Disney to become a teen idol, starring in a series of "Beach Party" movies with Frankie Avalon for American International Pictures. These started with Beach Party (1963), which was so successful American International Pictures signed Funicello to a seven-year contract and starred her in a series of beach party movies.
Funicello guest-starred on episodes of Wagon Train, Burke's Law and The Greatest Show on Earth, then starred in another two-part Disney telemovie with Kirk, The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964). This was released to cinemas in the US and became a surprise box office hit.
When she was cast in her first beach movie, Walt Disney requested that she only wear modest bathing suits and keep her navel covered. However, she wore a pink two-piece in Beach Party, a white two-piece fishnet suit in the second film (Muscle Beach Party) and a blue and white bikini in the third (Bikini Beach). All three swimsuits bared her navel, particularly in Bikini Beach, where it is visible extensively during close up shots in a sequence early in the film when she meets Frankie Avalon's "Potato Bug" character outside his tent.
Funicello made Pajama Party (1964) for AIP with Kirk, not Avalon, though it was an unofficial Beach Party movie and Avalon made a cameo. Avalon was back as Funicello's co-star in Beach Blanket Bingo (1965), then she and Kirk did a sequel to Merlin Jones, The Monkey's Uncle (1965). The Monkey's Uncle featured Annette singing with The Beach Boys and was another huge hit.
Funicello made a cameo in two AIP comedies starring Avalon, Ski Party (1965) and Dr Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine (1965), then she did How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (1965) with Dwayne Hickman. Box office receipts for the series were in decline, and neither Avalon nor Funicello appeared in the final installment, The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini (1966).
Stock-car racing filmsEdit
AIP tried a new formula with stock car racing films, starting with Fireball 500 (1966) which starred Funicello, Avalon and Fabian Forte. The movie was popular enough for them to try another stock car movie, Thunder Alley (1967) with Funicello and Fabian. It would be her last lead in a feature film for two decades.
1970s and 1980sEdit
During the 1970s, Funicello focused on raising her family. However she still occasionally acted, making guest appearances on shows like Love, American Style, Easy Does It... Starring Frankie Avalon, Fantasy Island and The Love Boat.
In 1979, Funicello began starring in a series of television commercials for Skippy peanut butter. Her role as Skippy spokeswoman forced Funicello to turn down a role in Grease 2. In November 1985, she starred in the 16th episode of the Disney Channel documentary series Disney Family Album in an episode about her career.
A television film based on the book, A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story, was made in 1995. In the final scene, the actress portraying Funicello (Eva LaRue), using a wheelchair, turns away from the camera — turning back, it is Funicello herself, who delivered a message to a group of children.
During this period, she produced a line of teddy bears for the Annette Funicello Collectible Bear Company. The last collection in the series was made in 2004. She also had her own fragrance called "Cello, by Annette".
"Now that I've gone public with my illness, they can't do enough", she said in 1994. "They even send me home remedies to try. Everyone says, 'God bless you and I'm praying for you.' " 
She made her final public appearance on September 13, 1998 at California's Multiple Sclerosis Society, along with Frankie Avalon.
Funicello's best friend was actress and singer Shelley Fabares, whom she had met in a catechism class when they were teens. Fabares was a bridesmaid at Funicello's first wedding. Funicello was also very close to fellow Mouseketeers Lonnie Burr (her first boyfriend), Sharon Baird, Doreen Tracey, Cheryl Holdridge, Disney co-star Tommy Kirk and beach-movie co-star Frankie Avalon. She dated Canadian singer/songwriter Paul Anka and he wrote his hit song "Puppy Love" about her.
Marriages and childrenEdit
Funicello was married to Jack L. Gilardi (1930–2019), from 1965 until 1981. They had three children: Gina Portman (born 1965), Jack Jr. (born 1970) and Jason (born 1974). In 1986, she married California harness racing horse breeder/trainer Glen D. Holt (1930–2018). The couple was frequently seen attending harness horse races at the Los Alamitos Race Course and Fairplex in Pomona in the 1980s and 1990s.
In March 2011, her longtime Encino, California, home caught fire. She suffered smoke inhalation, but was otherwise unharmed. After the fire, Funicello and Holt lived in a modest ranch that they had purchased decades earlier, located just south of Shafter, California (north of Bakersfield), where she lived her remaining years.
Illness, death and legacyEdit
In early 1987, at around 45 years old, Funicello reunited with Frankie Avalon for a series of promotional concerts to promote their film Back to the Beach. She began to suffer from dizziness and balance issues and was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. For the next five years, she hid her condition from her family and friends. In 1992, she publicly disclosed her diagnosis to combat rumors that her impaired ability to walk was the result of alcoholism. In 1993, she opened the Annette Funicello Fund for Neurological Disorders at the California Community Foundation.
In 1995, Funicello appeared on the Disney TV documentary on the 40th anniversary of The Mickey Mouse Club.
On October 6, 2012, the Canadian program W5 profiled Funicello following her 15 years away from the public eye, revealing that her disease had severely damaged her nervous system. She had lost the ability to walk in 2004, had lost the ability to speak in 2009 and required a feeding tube, needing round-the-clock care in order to survive. Funicello's close friend Shelley Fabares also appeared in the profile piece.
On April 8, 2013, Funicello died at age 70 at Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California, from complications attributed to multiple sclerosis. Her family and Fabares were with her when she died. A private funeral was held at the Cherished Memories Memorial Chapel in Bakersfield. Commenting on her death, Walt Disney Company chairman and CEO Bob Iger said:
Annette was and always will be a cherished member of the Disney family, synonymous with the word Mouseketeer, and a true Disney Legend. She will forever hold a place in our hearts as one of Walt Disney's brightest stars, delighting an entire generation of baby boomers with her jubilant personality and endless talent. Annette was well known for being as beautiful inside as she was on the outside, and she faced her physical challenges with dignity, bravery and grace. All of us at Disney join with family, friends and fans around the world in celebrating her extraordinary life.
In a January 9, 1965 Peanuts comic strip, a totally distraught Linus has been reading a newspaper article in disbelief until he reveals, by the fourth panel; what the bad news was: "Annette Funicello has grown up!" (By that time, she had reached the age of 23.) 
Numbers in parentheses after title indicate peak position in Billboard charts.
- Annette – Vista BV-3301 (Mono) (1959)
- Annette Sings Anka (#21) – Vista BV-3302 (Mono) (1960)
- Hawaiiannette (#38) – Vista BV-3303 (Mono) (1960)
- Italiannette – Vista BV-3304 (Mono) (1960)
- Dance Annette – Vista BV-3305 (Mono) (1961)
- The Story of My Teens – Vista BV-3312 (Mono) (1962)
- Annette's Beach Party (#39) – Vista BV-3316 (Mono), STER-3316 (Stereo) (July 1963)
- Muscle Beach Party – Vista BV-3314 (Mono), STER-3314 (Stereo) (April 1964)
- Annette on Campus – Vista BV-3320 (Mono), STER-3320 (Stereo) (1964)
- Annette at Bikini Beach – Vista BV-3324 (Mono), STER-3324 (Stereo) (September 1964)
- Pajama Party – Vista BV-3325 (Mono), STER-3325 (Stereo) (November 1964)
- Something Borrowed Something Blue – Vista BV-3328 (Mono), STER-3328 (Stereo) (1964)
- Annette Sings Golden Surfin' Hits – Vista BV-3327 (Mono), STER-3327 (Stereo) (July 1965)
- Annette Funicello – Vista BV-4037 (1972)
- Annette Funicello Country Album – Starview 4001 (1984)
- Best of Annette – Rhino RNDF-206 (1984) (also released as a picture disk on Rhino RNLP-702)
- Annette: A Musical Reunion with America's Girl-Next-Door – Vista 60010 (1993)
- A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes – Time/Warner 520564 (April 16, 1995)
- The Best of Annette – Vista (August 14, 1991)
- A Tribute to Walt Disney – Promised Land – Glanco Music (2013)
|Year||Titles (A-side, B-side)
Both sides from same album except where indicated
|Record Label||Peak chart positions||Album|
|US Billboard||US Cashbox|
|1958||"How Will I Know My Love"
b/w "Don't Jump to Conclusions"
|"That Crazy Place from Outer Space"
b/w "Gold Doubloons and Pieces of Eight" (Non-album track)
b/w "Ma, He's Making Eyes at Me"
|"Jo Jo the Dog Faced Boy"
Original B-side: "Lonely Guitar"
Later B-side: "Love Me Forever"
|"Lonely Guitar" /
Multiple releases with each title as A-side
|"Especially for You"
b/w "My Heart Became of Age"
|"First Name Initial" /
"My Heart Became of Age" (from Annette)
|The Story of My Teens|
|1960||"O Dio Mio"
b/w "It Took Dreams" (from Annette)
|"Train of Love"
b/w "Tell Me Who's the Girl" (from The Story of My Teens)
|Vista 359||36||47||Annette Sings Anka|
b/w "Luau Cha Cha Cha"
|"Talk to Me Baby"
b/w "I Love You Baby"
|Vista 369||92||98||Annette Sings Anka|
b/w "Please Please Signore"
b/w "Mama Mama Rosa (Where's the Spumoni)" (from Italiannette)
|Vista 375||—||—||Non-album track|
|"Blue Muu Muu"
b/w "Hawaiian Love Talk" (Non-album track)
|"Dreamin' About You"
b/w "Strummin' Song" (from The Story of My Teens)
|Vista 388||106||—||Non-album track|
|1962||"That Crazy Place from Outer Space"
b/w "Seven Moons (Of Batalyre)" (by Danny Saval and Tom Tyron, non-album track)
|"The Truth About Youth"
b/w "I Can't Do the Sum"
|Vista 394||—||—||The Story of My Teens|
|"My Little Grass Shack"
|"He's My Ideal"
b/w "Mister Piano Man" (from The Story of My Teens)
|Vista 405||—||—||Non-album tracks|
|"Bella Bella Florence"
b/w "Canzone d'Amoure"
b/w "Walkin' and Talkin'"
|1963||"Promise Me Anything"
b/w "Treat Him Nicely"
|Vista 427||123||—||Annette's Beach Party|
|1964||"Merlin Jones" (with The Wellingtons)
b/w "The Scrambled Egghead" (with Tommy Kirk)
|Vista 431||—||—||Muscle Beach Party|
b/w "Rebel Rider"
|"Muscle Beach Party"
b/w "I Dream About Frankie"
|"Bikini Beach Party"
b/w "The Clyde"
|Vista 436||—||—||Annette at Bikini Beach|
b/w "The Clyde"
|1965||"Something Borrowed, Something Blue"
b/w "How Will I Know My Love" (New version of Annette's 1958 recording)
|Vista 438||—||—||Something Borrowed, Something Blue|
|"The Monkey's Uncle" (With The Beach Boys)
b/w "How Will I Know My Love" (from Something Borrowed, Something Blue)
|Vista 440||—||—||Annette at Bikini Beach|
|"Boy to Love"
b/w "No One Else Could Be Prouder"
|Vista 442||—||—||Golden Surfin' Hits|
|1966||"No Way to Go but Up"
b/w "Crystal Ball" (from Something Borrowed, Something Blue)
|Vista 450||—||—||Non-album track|
|1967||"What's a Girl to Do"
b/w "When You Get What You Want"
(Annette's name is misspelled on both sides as "Annettte")
|Tower 326||—||—||Thunder Alley (Soundtrack)|
|1981||"(Together We Can Make A) Merry Christmas"
b/w "The Night Before Christmas"
(Duets with Frankie Avalon)
|Pacific Star 569||—||—||Non-album tracks|
|1983||"The Promised Land"
b/w "In Between and Out of Love"
|Starview 3001||—||—||Country Album|
- The Shaggy Dog (1959) – Allison D'Allessio
- Babes in Toyland (1961) – Mary Quite Contrary
- Beach Party (1963) – Dolores
- The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964) – Jennifer
- Muscle Beach Party (1964) – Dee Dee
- Bikini Beach (1964) – Dee Dee
- Pajama Party (1964) – Connie
- Beach Blanket Bingo (1965) – Dee Dee
- The Monkey's Uncle (1965) – Jennifer
- Ski Party (1965, Cameo) – Prof. Sonya Roberts (uncredited)
- How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (1965) – Dee Dee
- Dr. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine (1965, cameo) – Girl in Dungeon
- Fireball 500 (1966) – Jane Harris
- Thunder Alley (1967) – Francie Madsen
- Head (1968) – Minnie
- Lots of Luck (1985, TV Movie) – Julie Maris
- Back to the Beach (1987) – Annette
- Troop Beverly Hills (1989, cameo)
- Mickey Mouse Club (1955–1959; 1977; 1980; 1990; 1993)
- Elfego Baca: Six Gun Law (1959) (compilation of episodes from Wonderful World of Color serial) – Chiquita Bernal
- The Danny Thomas Show (cast member in 1959) – Gina Minelli
- Zorro (1959–1961) – Anita Cabrillo / Constancia de la Torre
- The Horsemasters (1962) – Dinah Wilcox
- Escapade in Florence (1962) – Annette Aliotto
- Burke's Law (1963–1965) – Anna Najensky / Dorrie Marsh
- Wagon Train (1963, Episode: "The Sam Pulaski Story") – Rose Pulaski
- The Greatest Show on Earth (1964, Episode: "Rosetta") – Melanie Keller
- Hondo (TV series) (1967, episode "Hondo and the Apache Trail")
- Easy Does It... Starring Frankie Avalon (1976, four-week summer variety series)
- Love, American Style segment "Love and the Tuba" (with Frankie Avalon, 1971) – Millie
- Frankie and Annette: The Second Time Around (1978, TV movie) (unsold pilot) – Annette
- Fantasy Island episode "Ghostbreaker" (1978)
- The Mouseketeer Reunion (November 23, 1980)
- The Love Boat(1982)
- Lots of Luck (1985; made-for-TV movie)
- Growing Pains episode "The Seavers and the Cleavers" (guest star, 1985)
- Pee-wee's Playhouse Christmas Special (guest star, 1988)
- Full House episode "Joey Goes Hollywood" (guest star with Frankie Avalon, March 29, 1991)
- A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story (1995; made-for-TV movie) – Annette Funicello (final film role)
- The Mickey Mouse Club Story (1995; documentary)
- McLellan, Dennis (January 9, 2009). "Cheryl Holdridge dies at 64; popular Mouseketeer". Los Angeles Times.
- Virginia Jeanne Funicello. Pqasb.pqarchiver.com (September 6, 2007). Retrieved on April 20, 2013.
- "Annette Funicello Biography (1942–)". Crystal Reference, Biography.com. A&E Television Networks. 2003. Archived from the original on April 8, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
- "Annette Funicello Fails to Set Aside Contract: Young Singer Wanted Court to Act on 1955 Pact Made With Disney Productions". Los Angeles Times. December 18, 1959. p. B14.
- "Article 2 -- No Title". Los Angeles Times. November 10, 1955. p. A1.
- Griffith, Mary Jo (June 21, 1994). "Annette Funicello shares life cheerfully Profile: The former Mousketeer thrives on the most demanding role of her life: herself". The Orange County Register. p. F04.
- "Disney Family Album #16-Annette Funicello". October 21, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Disney Fake Book. New York: Hal Leonard Corporation. 1996. p. 74. ISBN 0-7935-4521-8.
- "Oct 22nd Happy 65th Birthday Annette" (video interview). You Remember That.com. Archived from the original on December 24, 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2007.
- on YouTube (August 4, 2007). Retrieved on April 20, 2013.
- Korman, Seymour (February 7, 1959). "Annette Is Getting Older...: Hollywood". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. c3.
- "Ex-Mouseketeer Wins Thomas Role". Los Angeles Times. December 14, 1958. p. G6.
- Pryor, Thomas M. (July 30, 1958). "Mayor, Out West, Sees Film Studio: Visits Fox Lot, Meets Stars and Governor Knight -- Blaustein Script Added". New York Times. p. 18.
- Stanley, Fred (March 26, 1944). "Hollywood Mulls Court Decisions". New York Times. p. 1. ProQuest 106872448.
- Hopper, Hedda (January 26, 1961). "Annette Funicello to Star in Disney Film". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. a9.
- Hopper, Hedda (August 20, 1960). "Walt Disney Will Film Romantic Teen Comedy". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. n17.
- Gary A Smith, American International Pictures: The Golden Years, Bear Manor 2013 p 211
- "The Myth of the Hidden Navel". Beachpartymoviemusic.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- Cotter, Bill (1997). The Wonderful World of Disney Television. New York: Hyperion Books. ISBN 0-7868-6359-5.
- "History of Skippy". Unilever. 2012. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Popson, Tom (June 20, 1982). "Movies: 'Hey, What Floor Am I On?!' A Frenetic Day in Chicago for a Producer Born Too Late". Chicago Tribune. p. f20.
- "Frankie Avalon, Annette Funicello at Golden Nugget". Los Angeles Times. January 13, 1991. p. F79.
- "Annette Funicello final public appearance Entertainment Tonight". YouTube. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- Annette Funicello. People.com. Retrieved on April 20, 2013.
- "You Wanted To Know". The Australian Women's Weekly. November 3, 1982. p. 186.
- Oldenburg, Ann (March 12, 2011). "Annette Funicello suffers smoke inhalation down g fire". Usatoday.com. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- Jennifer Self, "Annette Funicello's family: She fought until the end" Archived April 13, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, The Bakersfield Californian, April 8, 2013.
- "Annette Funicello Fund For Neurological Disorders". California Community Foundation. 2008. Archived from the original on January 23, 2008. Retrieved January 28, 2008.
- "Annette Funicello Research Foundation". Archived from the original on May 11, 2013.
- "Annette Funicello: Her life with multiple sclerosis". CTV. October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- "Annette Funicello_life with M.S.-Mid Oct 2012 / Passed April 8th 2013". YouTube. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (April 8, 2013), "Annette Funicello Dies at 70 After Long Battle with MS". People.com. Retrieved on April 20, 2013.
- "Funeral Services For April 11, 2013" Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, The Bakersfield Californian, April 11, 2013. Retrieved on April 23, 2013.
- "Beloved Disney Mouseketeer and Iconic Teen Star Annette Funicello Dies at Age 70". D23. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
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- "Billboard Artist Annette Funicello". Billboard.com. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Annette Funicello.|
- Annette Funicello Research Fund for Neurological Diseases
- Annette Funicello at IMDb
- Annette Funicello at the TCM Movie Database
- A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story at IMDb
- "Beloved mouseketeer and iconic teen star Annette Funicello passes away". Obituary. Disney. April 8, 2013.
- "Annette Funicello". Life Story. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013.
- "Annette Funicello". Brian's Drive In Theatre. Biograrphy. October 22, 2020 .