Andranik Tangian

Andranik Semovich Tangian (Melik-Tangyan) (Russian: Андраник Семович Тангян (Мелик-Тангян)); born March 29, 1952) is a Soviet-German mathematician, political economist and music theorist.[1] Tangian is known for the mathematical theory of democracy, the Third Vote election method, criticism of flexicurity employment strategy and models of artificial perception of music. He is professor of the Institute for Economics (ECON) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.[2]

Andranik Tangian
TangianAndranik11Sep2007 01.jpg
Andranik Tangian, Düsseldorf, 2007
Born (1952-03-29) March 29, 1952 (age 70)
Other namesMelik-Tangyan
Tanguiane
CitizenshipSoviet Union
Russia
Germany
Alma materMoscow State University Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics
Known forMathematical theory of democracy
Third Vote election method
Criticism of flexicurity employment strategy
Models of artificial perception of music
Scientific career
FieldsApplied mathematics
Political economy
Music theory
InstitutionsGubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas
Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union
Academy of National Economy under the Government of the Russian Federation
Grenoble Institute of Technology
University of Paris I (Sorbonne)
University of Hagen
Hans Böckler Foundation
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

BiographyEdit

Andranik Tangian was born in Moscow, Soviet Union, on March 29, 1952. After the graduation from the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of the Moscow State University in 1974, he has worked at the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas and the Central Economic Mathematical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, where he got his PhD in mathematics in 1979.

From 1980 to 1983 he worked as assistant professor at the Academy of National Economy under the Government of the Russian Federation and since 1983 as senior researcher at the Dorodnitsyn Computing Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, where he received habilitation in mathematics in 1989.

As a self-taught composer, he debuted with orchestral music to the play The Last Trimester at the Moscow Central Children Theater [de] in 1977[3] and then has attended the class of Edison Denisov at the Moscow State Conservatory for two years. At the Computing Centre of the Academy of Sciences, Tangian organized the first Soviet computer music seminar and has cooperated with the Union of Soviet Composers.

On the invitation of Professor Josef Gruber [de], Tangian spent the academic year 1990/91 at the University of Hagen and published his first monograph on the mathematical theory of democracy.[4] During the next two academic years, Tangian has been visiting professor/researcher at the computer music studio ACROE–LIFIA of the Grenoble Institute of Technology, where he has written a monograph on artificial perception and music.[5] In parallel, he has taught calculus and probability at the department of mathematical methods in economics of the University of Paris I (Sorbonne).

From 1993 to 2002 Tangian was in charge of a project of the German Research Foundation (DFG) on constructing objective functions for econometric decision models at the University of Hagen,[6][7] where he received the German habilitation in mathematical economics and became Privatdozent in 1988.

From 2003 to 2017 Tangian worked at the Institute of Economic and Social Research [de] of the Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Düsseldorf, where he became the head of unit (Referat) "Policy modeling", having developed models to analyze the European flexicurity employment policy, which are summarized in the book Flexicurity and political philosophy.[8] At the same time, he has created the course "Decision making in politics and economics" at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. There, Tangian received his habilitation in general economics in 2008 and professor title in 2009. Basing on this course, Tangian has published two monographs on the mathematical theory of democracy.[9][10]

WorksEdit

Mathematical theory of democracyEdit

Combining the social choice and public choice approaches, Tangian's theory mathematically studies the fundamental concept to modern democracies – that of political representation.[9][10] For this purpose, several indices of representativeness are introduced and used for both theoretical analysis and applications.[11][12][13]

Third Vote election methodEdit

The method developed within the framework of the Mathematical theory of democracy assumes that instead of casting votes for candidates by name, electors give Yes/No-answers to political questions as raised in the candidates' manifestos.[14] The balance of public opinion on these issues thus identified is then used to find the most representative candidates and form the most representative parliament.[15][16][17][18][19]

Decision theoryEdit

For decision models, Tangian has developed several methods for constructing objective functions (= composite indices that embody decision-makers' preferences).[20][21] In particular, they are applied to optimize budgets for 16 Westphalian universities[22] and the European subsidies to 271 German regions for equalizing unemployment rates.[23]

FlexicurityEdit

Tangian's ten empirical models of flexicurity — the European policy intended to compensate the flexibilization of employment by social security measures — show that it fails to meet expectations.[8] Alternatively, the job quality indicators developed within this research[24] are proposed for the workplace tax that, by analogy with the green tax, should charge employers for bad working conditions considered "social pollution".[25]

InequalityEdit

According to Tangian, the current rise in inequality is caused, among other things, by the increasing productivity, which enables to underpay workers in so-called "labor equivalents", maintaining nevertheless an impression of fair pay, and use the surplus profit to enrich the upper strata of the society.[26]

Artificial perception and automatic notation of musicEdit

The approach implements Tangian's principle of correlativity of perception for structuring data without knowing the structures, which is based on memory-saving representations.[5][27][28] This model is used for polyphonic voice separation/chord recognition and tempo tracking under variable tempo.[29][30]

Modeling interpretationEdit

Tangian has proposed to segment the musical text with respect to the segment functions and show the segments using tempo envelopes, dynamics and other execution techniques. All of these are displayed in a conditional "orchestral score".[31] This idea is also applied to theatrical performance and its notation.[32]

Algorithmic compositionEdit

In the 2000s, Tangian has developed algorithms for finding rhythmic canons and fugues, i.e. polyphonic structures generated by one or two rhythmic patterns that in their interaction produce a regular pulse train, however, with no coinciding time events from different voices.[33][34][35][36] As harmony algorithms, 2D and 3D proximity maps for major and minor keys and chords have been developed.[37]

FamilyEdit

Tangian belongs to the Armenian noble family Melik-Tangyan, which is mentioned in Armenian chronicles since the 10th century.[38] Tangian's father, Sema Tanguiane, was the UNESCO Assistant Director General for Education from 1975 to 1987. Tangian's mother, Avgousta Moussatova, was university teacher of Spanish.[39][40]

Tangian lives with his wife Olga Trifonova, daughter of the Soviet writer Yury Trifonov, in Düsseldorf. They have three children: Ekaterina, Nina Römer and Mikhail.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Tangian Andranik Semovich". Armenian Encyclopedia of Hayazg Foundation (in Russian). Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  2. ^ Personal page of Prof. Dr. Dr. Andranik S. Melik-Tangyan. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  3. ^ Sukhina, Z. (Сухина З.) (5 April 1977). "Открытие имен" [Discovering names]. Советская культура [Soviet Culture] (in Russian): 8.
  4. ^ Tanguiane (Tangian), Andranick (1991). Aggregation and representation of preferences: introduction to mathematical theory of democracy. Berlin–Heidelberg: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-76516-2. ISBN 978-3-642-76516-2.
  5. ^ a b Tanguiane (Tangian), Andranick (1993). Artificial perception and music recognition. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Vol. 746. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-57394-4.
  6. ^ Tangian, Andranik; Gruber, Josef (1997). Constructing scalar-valued objective functions. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Econometric Decision Models: Constructing Scalar-Valued Objective Functions, University of Hagen, held in Katholische Akademie Schwerte September 5–8, 1995 (Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems 453). Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-48773-6. ISBN 978-3-540-63061-6.
  7. ^ Tangian, Andranik; Gruber, Josef (2002). Constructing and applying objective functions. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Econometric Decision Models: Constructing and Applying Objective Functions, University of Hagen, held in Haus Nordhelle, August, 28–31, 2000 (Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems 510). Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-56038-5. ISBN 978-3-540-42669-1.
  8. ^ a b Tangian, Andranik (2011). Flexicurity and political philosophy. New York: Nova. ISBN 978-1-61122-816-8.
  9. ^ a b Tangian, Andranik (2014). Mathematical theory of democracy. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38724-1. ISBN 978-3-642-38723-4.
  10. ^ a b Tangian, Andranik (2020). Analytical theory of democracy. Vols. 1 and 2. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-39691-6. ISBN 978-3-030-39690-9.
  11. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2022). Analysis of the 2021 Bundestag Elections 1/4. Representativeness of the Parties and the Bundestag. ECON Working Papers. Vol. 151. Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. doi:10.5445/IR/1000143156. ISSN 2190-9806.
  12. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2022). Analysis of the 2021 Bundestag Elections 2/4. Political Spectrum. ECON Working Papers. Vol. 152. Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. doi:10.5445/IR/1000143157. ISSN 2190-9806.
  13. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2022). Analysis of the 2021 Bundestag Elections 3/4. Tackling the Bundestag Growth. ECON Working Papers. Vol. 153. Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. doi:10.5445/IR/1000143158. ISSN 2190-9806.
  14. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2017). "An election method to improve policy representation of a parliament". Group Decision and Negotiation. 26 (1): 181–196. doi:10.1007/S10726-016-9508-4. S2CID 157553362.
  15. ^ Andranik Tangian (2021). "MCDM application of the Third Vote" (PDF). Group Decision and Negotiation. 30 (4): 775–787. doi:10.1007/s10726-021-09733-2.
  16. ^ Amrhein, Marius; Diemer, Antonia; Eßwein, Bastian; Waldeck, Maximilian; Schäfer, Sebastian. "The Third Vote (web page)". Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute ECON. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  17. ^ "Turning a political education instrument (voting advice application) in a new election method", World Forum for Democracy 2016, Lab 7: Reloading Elections, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 7–9 November 2016, retrieved 15 December 2020
  18. ^ "Well Informed Vote", World Forum for Democracy 2019, Lab 5: Voting under the Influence, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 6–8 November 2019, retrieved 15 December 2020
  19. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2022). Analysis of the 2021 Bundestag Elections 4/4. Tackling the Bundestag Growth. ECON Working Papers. Vol. 154. Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. doi:10.5445/IR/1000143159. ISSN 2190-9806.
  20. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2002). "Constructing a quasi-concave quadratic objective function from interviewing a decision maker". European Journal of Operational Research. 141 (3): 608–640. doi:10.1016/S0377-2217(01)00185-0. S2CID 39623350.
  21. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2004). "A model for ordinally constructing additive objective functions". European Journal of Operational Research. 159 (2): 476–512. doi:10.1016/S0377-2217(03)00413-2. S2CID 31019036.
  22. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2004). "Redistribution of university budgets with respect to the status quo". European Journal of Operational Research. 157 (2): 409–428. doi:10.1016/S0377-2217(03)00271-6.
  23. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2008). "Multi-criteria optimization of regional employment policy: A simulation analysis for Germany". Review of Urban and Regional Development. 20 (2): 103–122. doi:10.1111/j.1467-940X.2008.00144.x.
  24. ^ Indicators of job quality in the European Union. IP/A/EMPL/ST/2008-09 PE 429.972 (PDF). Brussels: European Parliament. 2009. pp. 111–112. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  25. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2009). "Decent work: indexing European working conditions and imposing workplace tax". Transfer. 15 (3/4): 527–556. doi:10.1177/10242589090150031801.
  26. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2017). Declining labor–labor exchange rates as a cause of inequality growth. ECON Working papers. Vol. 104. Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. doi:10.5445/IR/1000075512. S2CID 158541097.
  27. ^ Tanguiane (Tangian), Andranick (1994). "A principle of correlativity of perception and its application to music recognition". Music Perception. 11 (4): 465–502. doi:10.2307/40285634.
  28. ^ Tanguiane (Tangian), Andranick (1995). "Towards axiomatization of music perception". Journal of New Music Research. 24 (3): 247–281. doi:10.1080/09298219508570685.
  29. ^ Tangian, Andranick (2021). How do we think: Modeling interactions of perception and memory. KIT Scientific Working Papers. Vol. 166. Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000133287. ISSN 2194-1629.
  30. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2021). Breaking the vicious circle of rhythm–tempo definitions. KIT Scientific Working Papers. Vol. 168. Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000133727. ISSN 2194-1629.
  31. ^ Tangian, Andranik (1999). "Towards a generative theory of interpretation for performance modeling". Musicae Scientiae. 3 (2): 237–267. doi:10.1177/102986499900300205.
  32. ^ Tangian, Andranik (1997). "Performance interpretation by segmentation and its notation". Contemporary Theatre Review. 6 (4): 79–97. doi:10.1080/10486809708568438.
  33. ^ Tangian, Andranik. The sieve of Eratosthene for Diophantine equations in integer polynomials and Johnson's problem. Discussion Paper. Vol. 309. Hagen: University of Hagen. S2CID 117546022. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  34. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2003). "Constructing rhythmic canons" (PDF). Perspectives of New Music. 41 (2): 64–92. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  35. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2010). "Constructing rhythmic fugues (addendum to Constructing rhythmic canons)". IRCAM, Seminaire MaMuX, 9 February 2002, Mosaïques et pavages dans la musique (PDF). Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  36. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2002–2003). "Eine kleine Mathmusik I and II". IRCAM, Seminaire MaMuX, 9 February 2002, Mosaïques et pavages dans la musique. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  37. ^ Tangian, Andranik (2021). 2D and 3D proximity maps for major and minor keys and chords. KIT Scientific Working Papers. Vol. 171. Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000135520. ISSN 2194-1629. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  38. ^ Aghemian, Haik (1926). "Historical roots of the Melik-Tangyan family". In Aghemian, Haik (ed.). Father Nerses, Archbishop Melik-Tangyan: On the 40th anniversary of his national and public activities 1886–1926 (in Armenian). Venice: Mkhitaryan Printing Haus.
  39. ^ "Тангян Сема Амазаспович (Tanguiane Sema Amazaspovich)". Armenian Encyclopedia of the Hayazg Foundation (in Russian). Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  40. ^ Легенда ЮНЕСКО: к 91-летию со дня рождения Семы Тангяна (Legend of the UNESCO: On the 91st birthday of Sema Tanguiane). Голос Армении (Voice of Armenia). 21 December 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2021.

External linksEdit