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Anaphase.svg
A cell during anaphase. Microtubules are visible in green.

Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the metaphase, when replicated chromosomes are split and the newly-copied chromosomes (daughter chromatids) are moved to opposite poles of the cell. Chromosomes also reach their overall maximum condensation in late anaphase, to help chromosome segregation and the re-formation of the nucleus.[1]

Anaphase starts when the anaphase promoting complex marks an inhibitory chaperone called securin for destruction by ubiquinylating it. Securin is a protein which inhibits a protease known as separase. The destruction of securin unleashes separase which then breaks down cohesin, a protein responsible for holding sister chromatids together.[2]

At this point, three subclasses of microtubule unique to mitosis are involved in creating the forces necessary to separate the chromatids: kinetochore microtubules, interpolar microtubules, and astral microtubules.

The centromeres are split, and the sister chromatids are pulled toward the poles by kinetochore microtubules. They take on a V-shape or Y-shape as they are pulled to either pole.

While the chromosomes are drawn to each side of the cell, interpolar microtubules and astral microtubules generate forces that stretch the cell into an oval.[3]

Once anaphase is complete, the cell moves into telophase.[4]

PhasesEdit

Anaphase is characterized by two distinct motions. The first of these, anaphase A, moves chromosomes to either pole of a dividing cell (marked by centrosomes, from which mitotic microtubules are generated and organised). The movement for this is primarily generated by the action of kinetochores, and a subclass of microtubule called kinetochore microtubules.

The second motion, anaphase B, involves the separation of these poles from each other. The movement for this is primarily generated by the action of interpolar microtubules and astral microtubules.

Anaphase AEdit

A combination of different forces have been observed acting on chromatids in anaphase A, but the primary force is exerted centrally. Microtubules attach to the midpoint of chromosomes (the centromere) via protein complexes (kinetochores). The attached microtubules depolymerise and shorten, which together with motor proteins creates movement that pulls chromosomes towards centrosomes located at each pole of the cell.[5]

Although movement towards the poles dominates, chromatids may transiently move away from the poles of each cell, in a 'back-and-forth' motion. It has been suggested that this movement is passively generated by forces external to the kinetochore, when motor proteins or depolymerisation are not producing movement.[5]

Anaphase BEdit

The second part of anaphase is driven by its own distinct mechanisms. Force is generated by several actions. Interpolar microtubules begin at each centrosome and join at the equator of the dividing cell. They push against one another, causing each centrosome to move further apart. Meanwhile, astral microtubules begin at each centrosome and join with the cell membrane. This allows them to pull each centrosome closer to the cell membrane. Movement created by these microtubules is generated by a combination of microtubule growth or shrinking, and by motor proteins such as dyneins or kinesins.[6]

Relation to the cell cycleEdit

Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycle's duration.[7][citation needed] It begins with the regulated triggering of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Metaphase ends with the destruction of B cyclin. B cyclin is marked with ubiquitin which flags it for destruction by proteasomes, which is required for the function of metaphase cyclin-dependent kinases (M-Cdks).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chromosome condensation through mitosis". Science Daily. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
  2. ^ "The Cell Cycle". Kimball's Biology Pages. Archived from the original on 2012-11-19. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  3. ^ Hickson GR, Echard A, O'Farrell PH (February 2006). "Rho-kinase controls cell shape changes during cytokinesis". Current Biology. 16 (4): 359–70. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.12.043. PMC 1525334. PMID 16488869.
  4. ^ Schafer KA (November 1998). "The cell cycle: a review". Veterinary Pathology. 35 (6): 461–78. doi:10.1177/030098589803500601. PMID 9823588.
  5. ^ a b Asbury CL (February 2017). "Anaphase A: Disassembling Microtubules Move Chromosomes toward Spindle Poles". Biology. 6 (1): 15. doi:10.3390/biology6010015. PMC 5372008. PMID 28218660.
  6. ^ Scholey JM, Civelekoglu-Scholey G, Brust-Mascher I (December 2016). "Anaphase B". Biology. 5 (4): 51. doi:10.3390/biology5040051. PMC 5192431. PMID 27941648.
  7. ^ Heath IB, Rethoret K (June 1980). "Temporal analysis of the nuclear cycle by serial section electron microscopy of the fungus, Saprolegnia ferax". European Journal of Cell Biology. 21 (2): 208–13. PMID 7398661.

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