Ambiguities in Chinese character simplification

A number of Chinese characters are simplified-traditional multipairings (简繁一对多; 簡繁一對多), which do not have a one-to-one mapping between their simplified and traditional forms.

This is usually because the simplification process merged two or more distinct characters into one. In most cases, these traditional characters are homonyms, having the same pronunciation but different meanings. As a result, converting text from simplified to traditional characters is difficult to automate, especially in the case of common characters such as 後后 (behind, empress), 表錶 (table, clock), 奸姦 (traitor, rape) and more.

In a smaller number of cases, a single traditional character is mapped to multiple simplified characters as the character is only simplified in one of its usages.

The following is an exhaustive list of all characters whose simplified and traditional forms do not map in a one-to-one manner. Simplified characters are marked with a pink background, and traditional characters with light blue.

1 to 2Edit

板闆  辟闢  表錶  別彆  卜蔔  布佈  才纔  彩綵  虫蟲  丑醜  出齣  村邨  當噹  黨党  澱淀  弔吊  冬鼕  發髮  范範  豐丰  谷穀  雇僱  刮颳  广廣广  哄鬨  後后  獲穫  幾几  機机  飢饑  奸姦  姜薑  借藉  捲卷  克剋  困睏  夸誇  羅囉  累纍  厘釐  漓灕  梁樑  了瞭  霉黴  彌瀰  蔑衊  么麼  麽麼  蘋苹  僕仆  鋪舖  朴樸  簽籤  舍捨  沈瀋  勝胜  術朮  松鬆  他祂  嘆歎  壇罈  你妳  體体  同衕  涂塗  團糰  喂餵  為爲  纖縴  鹹咸  弦絃  綉繡  須鬚  熏燻  醃腌  葉叶  傭佣  湧涌  游遊  於于  余餘  籲吁  郁鬱  欲慾  御禦  願愿  岳嶽  雲云  贊讚  臟髒  扎紮  占佔  折摺  證証  志誌  制製  致緻  鍾鐘  種种  周週  註注  準准  塚冢  庄莊  澀澁  蠶蚕  懺忏  噸吨  趕赶  構构  櫃柜  怀懷怀  壞坏  極极  繭茧  家傢  價价  潔洁  驚惊  臘腊  蠟蜡  簾帘  憐怜  嶺岭  撲扑  秋鞦  千韆  確确  擾扰  灑洒  曬晒  適适  聽听  窪洼  網网  旋鏇  踴踊  優优  症癥  朱硃  薦荐  離离  鹵滷  氣气  聖圣  萬万  與与  擺襬  蟣虮  籬篱  寧宁  濘泞  惡噁  托託  嚥咽  线線綫  咨諮  蕩盪  亘亙  侖崙  体體  趟蹚  杯盃 

1 to 3Edit

曲麯麴  升昇陞  蘇囌甦  系係繫  嘗甞嚐  胡鬍衚  畫劃划  回迴囘  匯彙滙  里裡裏  歷曆厤  裊嫋嬝  向嚮曏  它牠祂  冲沖衝[1]  仇讎讐  迹跡蹟  尽盡儘  毀燬譭  刨鉋鑤  泛氾汎  抵牴觝

1 to 4Edit

并並併竝  采埰寀採  厂庵厰廠  乾干幹榦  蒙懞濛矇  面麵麪麫  復複覆复  只隻衹祇  參蔘葠蓡  酬醻詶酧  据據㨿拠

1 to 5Edit

臺台檯枱颱  粗麤觕麁麄

1 to 9Edit

鬥斗鬪鬦鬭鬬闘閗逗

2 to 1Edit

著着  ()(ér)  (qián)(gān)  ()(jiè)  (liào)(liǎo)  ()(me)  馀余  摺折  鲶鲇  沈渖  碱硷

Special casesEdit

níng (limonene) is simplified to which is the traditional character for zhù (boehmeria) that in turn is simplified to .

shèn (extremely, exceed) and shí (ten, various) are the same in both simplified and traditional, while shén (what) is written in traditional and in simplified (and also as a variant in traditional).

zhǐ (a musical note) and zhēng (journey, campaign) are the same in both simplified and traditional. However, another zhēng (punish, seek, characteristic, levy) is written in traditional and in simplified.

A similar, but not entirely comparable situation is and , both pronounced huǒ. The literary meaning "many, much" is written in both sets, and the meaning "meals" is written in both sets, but the meaning "partner, group, combine" generally prefers for traditional and for simplified, although as there is some overlap with the other meanings, the character choice is less strict.

    甚什  甚什  徵征  徵征  夥伙  夥伙

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 康熙字典:131頁,第28字

External linksEdit