Alcimus (from Greek: Ἄλκιμος Alkimos, "valiant" or Hebrew אליקום Elyaqum, "God will rise"), also called Jacimus, or Joachim (Ἰάκειμος), was a 45 High Priest of Israel for three years, 162–159 BCE, who espoused the Syrian cause.
According to 1 Maccabees, he was a descendant of the Biblical Aaron, brother of Moses, but not in the high-priestly line; and being ambitious for the office of the high priest, he traveled to Antioch to secure the assistance of the Seleucid king Demetrius I Soter, who had just overthrown Antiochus Eupator. Alcimus was of the Hellenizing party, and therefore bitterly opposed by the Maccabees.
Demetrius sent an army under Bacchides to establish Alcimus in the high priesthood at Jerusalem. The favor with which Alcimus was received by the Jews at Jerusalem on account of his Aaronic descent was soon turned to hate by his cruelties. When Bacchides and his army returned to Antioch, the Hasmonean Judah Maccabee attacked and overcame Alcimus, and drove him also to Syria. There he secured from Demetrius another army, led by Nicanor, who, failing to overcome Judah by treachery, attacked him directly, but was defeated and killed. A third and greater army, under Bacchides again, was dispatched to reinstall Alcimus. Judah was defeated and killed, Alcimus established as a high priest and a strong garrison left in Jerusalem to maintain him. But he did not long enjoy his triumph, since he died soon after, while he was pulling down the wall of the temple that divided the court of the Gentiles from that of the Israelites.
- The record of his career may be found in 1 Maccabees 7:4-50; 9:1-57; 2 Maccabees 14; see also Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XII, 9-11; XX, 10.
- 1 Macc 7:14; also Ant, XX, 10.
- Smith, William (1867). "Alcimus (1)". In William Smith (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 102. Archived from the original on 2007-10-28.
- Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews xii. 9. § 7
- Mack, E. (1915). Alcimus. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Eds. Orr, James, M.A., D.D. Retrieved December 9, 2005.
- Toxicology in the Old Testament. Did the High Priest Alcimus die of acute aconitine poisoning?
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Alexander Büchler (1901–1906). "Alcimus (called also Jakim)". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.