Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan
Alberto Azzo II (997 or July 10, 1009, Modena – August 20, 1097, Modena), Margrave of Milan, and Liguria, Count of Gavello and Padua, Rovigo, Lunigiana, Monselice, and Montagnana, was a powerful nobleman in the Holy Roman Empire. He is considered the founder of Casa d'Este (House of Este), having been head of the first family to be master of Este, a town of Padua.
|Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan|
Alberto Azzo II and first wife Kunigunde
|Born||997 or 1009|
|Died||August 20, 1097|
|Noble family||House of Este|
|Spouse(s)||Kunigunde of Altdorf|
Garsende of Maine
|Father||Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan|
|Mother||Adela of Milan|
Alberto Azzo II was the only son of Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan and Adela of Milan. He inherited his father's offices around 1029, and continually increased his properties in northern Italy. Around 1073 he made a castle at Este his residence, from which the House of Este took its name. Before his building project, Este was little more than a village.
Azzo II married Kunigunde (also called Chuniza), the daughter of Welf II, Count of Altdorf, in 1035/6. Azzo's son with Chuniza, Welf, moved first to Carinthia and then to Bavaria, giving rise to one of the most important families in European history, the Guelphs.
Around 1050, Azzo married again, to Garsende, daughter of Herbert I, Count of Maine, around 1050. In 1069–1070, he tried to acquire Maine for his son Hugh, because his wife, Garsende, was a co-heiress of the previous counts of Maine. Hugh was declared count, but he could not prevail against Robert, the Duke of Normandy, who had been betrothed to the last heiress. Another son from this marriage, Fulk I of Milan, made the first documented use of the title "Marquis d'Este."
With his first wife, Chuniza, Azzo had one known child:
- Welf (died November 6, 1101, Paphos) Duke of Bavaria from 1070 to 1077 and from 1096 to his death who was the first member of the Welf branch of the House of Este.
With his second wife, Garsende, Azzo had two known sons:
- Fulco I, Margrave of Milan (died 1128), ancestor of the Italian branch of the House of Este
- Hugh V, Count of Maine (died 1131), had no issue.
Some sources say he also married Vitalia Orseolo, daughter of Peter Orseolo. They had a daughter: Itta.
He had an extra-marital affair with, or perhaps married, Matilda, sister of William/Guglielmo, Bishop of Pavia (r.1069-1102/3), with whom he had a daughter named Adelasia, who married Guglielmo Adelardi.
Alberto Azzo II was extremely long-lived. He lived to at least his mid-80s and was perhaps one hundred years old when he died. He died in August 1097 at the monastery of Vangadizza, near Legnago, where he was buried.
- Henrici IV diplomata, no. 289 (1077), p. 377
- Thiele, Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln, table 152.
- Lampert of Hersfeld, Annales, a.1077, 290.
- Thiele, Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln, table 152; Genealogia Welforum, p. 764.
- Actus Pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium, chap. XXXII, p.377.
- Baaken, 'Herzog Welf VI,' p. 17.
- Orderic Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica, VIII, cap. XI, col. 589.
- Bresslau, Jahrbücher des deutschen Reiches, p. 421.
- Foundation for Medieval Genealogy: nobiltà del Nord Italia - ALBERTO Azzo (II)
- L.A. Muratori, Della antichità estensi, p. 316;Bernold, Chronicon, a.1097, p. 465.
- Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1833). The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Volume 10 Ernesti – Frustum. London: Knight. p. 38. OCLC 455140714. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
Oberto died about 1014, and was succeeded by his son, Alberto Azzo I, who in his turn was succeeded by his son Alberto Azzo or Albertazzo II
- Halliday, Andrew (1826). "BOOK III. CONTAINING A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE UNDER THE SAXON AND FRANCONIAN DYNASTIES. WITH THE HISTORY OF THE ANCESTORS OF THE HOUSE OF HANOVER DURING THAT PERIOD". Annals of the house of Hanover. London: William Sams. pp. 137–138, 141, 148, 151, 155–156. OCLC 03031224. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
- A. Thiele, Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte Band III Europäische Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser (R.G. Fischer Verlag, 1994).
- Luciano Chiappini, Gli Estensi (Varese, 1988).
- H. Bresslau, Jahrbücher des deutschen Reiches unter Konrad II. vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1879).
- K. Baaken, 'Herzog Welf VI. und seine Zeit,' in Welf VI. Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium zum 800. Todestages Welfs VI. im Schwäbischen Bildungszentrum Irsee (Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen, 1991), pp. 2-29.
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- Adalbert Azzo II Markgraf von Mailand (in German)
- Foundation for Medieval Genealogy: ALBERTO Azzo (II)
Albert Azzo II, Margrave of MilanBorn: 997 or 1009 Died: 20 August 1097
Albert Azzo I
| Margrave of Milan