Afrobeat

Afrobeat is a music genre which involves the combination of elements of West African musical styles such as fuji music and highlife with American jazz and later soul and funk influences, with a focus on chanted vocals, complex intersecting rhythms, and percussion.[1] The term was coined in the 1960s by Nigerian multi-instrumentalist and bandleader Fela Kuti, who is responsible for pioneering and popularizing the style both within and outside Nigeria.

Distinct from Afrobeat is Afrobeats – a sound originating in West Africa in the 21st century, one which takes in diverse influences and is an eclectic combination of genres such as highlife, hip hop, house, jùjú, ndombolo, R&B and soca.[2][3][4][5][6][7] The two genres, though often conflated, are not the same.[3][4]

Seun Kuti during an Afrobeat performance
Seun Kuti during an Afrobeat performance

HistoryEdit

Afrobeat was developed in the late 1960s led by Fela Kuti who, with drummer Tony Allen, experimented with different contemporary music of the time.

Afrobeat stemmed from Highlife which began in Ghana in the early 1920s. During that time, Ghanaian musicians incorporated foreign influences like the foxtrot and calypso with Ghanaian rhythms like osibisaba (Fante). Yoruba percussion and vocal traditions were incorporated as well. Highlife was associated with the local African aristocracy during the colonial period and was played by numerous bands including the Jazz Kings, Cape Coast Sugar Babies, and Accra Orchestra along the country's coast. This was the music Fela Kuti and Tony Allen played and listened to when they were young. [1]

In the late 50's, Fela Kuti left Lagos to study abroad at the London School of Music where he was exposed to jazz. He returned to Lagos and played a highlife-jazz hybrid, albeit, without commercial success. [1]

In 1969, Kuti and his band went on a trip to the U.S. and met Sandra Smith, a singer and former Black Panther. Sandra Smith (now known as Sandra Izsadore or Sandra Akanke Isidore) introduced Kuti to many writings of activists such as Martin Luther King Jr., Angela Davis, Jesse Jackson, and his biggest influence of all, Malcolm X.[3][citation needed]

As Kuti was interested in African American politics, Smith would inform him of current events. In return, Kuti would fill her in on African culture. Since Kuti stayed at Smith's house and was spending so much time with her, he started to re-evaluate his music. That was when Fela Kuti noticed that he was not playing African music. From that day forward, Kuti changed his sound and the message behind his music.[8]

Upon arriving in Nigeria, Kuti also changed the name of his group to "Africa ′70". The new sound hailed from a club that he established called the Afrika Shrine. The band maintained a five-year residency at the Afrika Shrine from 1970 to 1975 while afrobeat thrived among Nigerian youth.[3] Also influential was Ray Stephen Oche [de], a Nigerian musician touring from Paris, France, with his Matumbo orchestra in the 1970s.

The name was partially borne out of an attempt to distinguish Fela Kuti's music from the soul music of American artists such as James Brown.[9]

Prevalent in his and Lagbaja's music are native Nigerian harmonies and rhythms, taking different elements and combining, modernizing, and improvising upon them. Politics is essential to Afrobeat, since founder Kuti used social criticism to pave the way for social change. His message can be described as confrontational and controversial, which can be related to the political climate of most of the African countries in the 1970s, many of which were dealing with political injustice and military corruption while recovering from the transition from colonial governments to self-determination. As the genre spread throughout the African continent many bands took up the style. The recordings of these bands and their songs were rarely heard or exported outside the originating countries but many can now be found on compilation albums and CDs from specialist record shops.[citation needed]

InfluenceEdit

Many jazz musicians have been attracted to Afrobeat. From Roy Ayers in the 1970s to Randy Weston in the 1990s, there have been collaborations that have resulted in albums such as Africa: Centre of the World by Roy Ayers, released on the Polydore label in 1981. In 1994, Branford Marsalis, the American jazz saxophonist, included samples of Fela's "Beasts of No Nation" on his Buckshot LeFonque album.

Afrobeat has also profoundly influenced important contemporary producers and musicians like Brian Eno and David Byrne, who credit Fela Kuti as an essential influence.[10] Both worked on Talking Heads' highly acclaimed 1980 album Remain In Light, which brought polyrhythmic afrobeat influences to Western music. The new generation of DJs and musicians of the 2000s who have fallen in love with both Kuti's material and other rare releases have made compilations and remixes of these recordings, thus re-introducing the genre to new generations of listeners and fans of afropop and groove.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a small afrobeat scene began in Brooklyn, New York, with projects like Antibalas, The Daktaris and the Kokolo Afrobeat Orchestra. Since that time, other artists like Zongo Junction have come on to the scene. Many others have cited afrobeat as an influence like Daptone Records-adjacent groups The Budos Band and El Michels Affair. The horn section of Antibalas have been guest musicians on TV On The Radio's highly acclaimed 2008 album Dear Science, as well as on British band Foals' 2008 album, Antidotes. Some Afrobeat influence can also be found in the music of Vampire Weekend and Paul Simon. In 2020, Antibalas was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Global Music Album.[11]

Afrobeat artists of the 2000s and present, following in the footsteps of Fela Kuti, are for example his sons Femi Kuti and Seun Kuti,[12] Franck Biyong & Massak (from Cameroon), Segun Damisa & The Afro-beat Crusaders, Newen Afrobeat (from Chile), Eddy Taylor & The Heartphones (from Cologne, Germany), Bantucrew, the Albinoid Afrobeat Orchestra / Albinoid Sound System (from Strasbourg, France), Abayomy Afrobeat Orquestra, Karl Hector & The Malcouns (from Munich, Germany), Afrodizz and Dele Sosimi and the ex-Africa '70 members Oghene Kologbo (guitar) with Afrobeat Academy, Nicholas Addo-Nettey (percussion), who is also known as Pax Nicholas [de], with Ridimtaksi (both based in Berlin, Germany). The Namibian EES (Eric Sell) associates Afrobeat with reggae and kwaito.

In 2009 the music label Knitting Factory Records (KFR) produced the Broadway Musical Fela! As said on the musical's website, the story showcased Fela Kuti's “courage and incredible musical mastery” along with the story of his life. The show had 11 Tony nominations, receiving three for Best Costumes, Best Sound and Best Choreography. FELA! Was on Broadway for fifteen months and was produced by notables such as Shawn "Jay-Z " Carter and Will & Jada Pinkett-Smith. Many celebrities were noted on attending the shows such as, Denzel Washington, Madonna, Sting, Spike Lee (who saw it eight times), Kofi Annan, and even Michelle Obama. Michelle Williams, former singer of girl group Destiny's Child, was cast as the role of Sandra Izsadore.[13]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Grass, Randall F. "Fela AnikulaThe Art of an Afrobeat Rebel". The Drama Review: TDR. MIT Press. 30: 131–148.
  2. ^ Laura Khamis. "8 Afrobeats collaborations linking the UK with Africa". Red Bull. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d Scher, Robin; ContributorWriter (6 August 2015). "Afrobeat(s): The Difference a Letter Makes". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b Lakin Starling. "10 Ghanaian Afrobeats Artists You Need To Know". The Fader. Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  5. ^ Phillips, Yoh. "WizKid Affiliate Mr Eazi's Journey From Tech Startup to Afrobeats Stardom". DJBooth. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  6. ^ Khan, Ahmad; writer, ContributorFreelance (21 September 2017). "A Conversation with the Queen of Afrobeats: Tiwa Savage". HuffPost. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  7. ^ Smith, Caspar Llewellyn (23 June 2012). "I'm with D'Banj". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  8. ^ Stewart, Alexander (2013). "Make It Funky: Fela Kuti, James Brown and the Invention of Afrobeat". American Studies. 52 (4): 99–118. doi:10.1353/ams.2013.0124. S2CID 145682238. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018 – via Project MUSE.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Meet The First-Time GRAMMY Nominee: Antibalas". GRAMMY.com. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Den Geist des Vaters beschworen: Der Saxofonist Seun Kuti zeigt in Berlin, wie lebendig der Sound seines Vaters Fela Kuti, des Funk-Großmeisters aus Nigeria, bis heute ist". Die Tageszeitung (in German). 1 July 2011.
  13. ^ Brantley, Ben. "About | FELA! On Broadway". FELA! On Broadway. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.

Further readingEdit