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Adjunct professor (adjunct lecturer and adjunct instructor, or adjunct faculty collectively) is a broad-concept type of professors and faculty (academic staff) in higher education, at an academic rank below the highest level of professorship. For example, adjuncts are non-tenure-track faculty in the U.S. and in Canada.
- In Australia, adjunct teaching staff whether they are lecturers or tutors are known as sessionals or sessional teaching staff members.
- In Canada, adjunct professors are often nominated in recognition of active involvement with the appointing institution, while they are employed by government, industry, a profession or another institution. The Course Lecturer appointment is used if the appointment is strictly to teach one or more courses, contrasting with US usage of the title for all instructors.
- In countries such as Argentina and Brazil, a similar designation, Professor adjunto, does imply stable full-time employment.
- In parts of Spain, Profesor Adjunto is a non-tenured position.
- In Hungary, there exists a similar term Adjunktus, as well as Adiunkt in Poland.
- In Thailand, Adjunct (Assistant/Associate) Professors are considered "non-regular officers".
- In Pakistan, Adjunct (Assistant/Associate) Professors are also considered as non-regular faculty members and usually posts are given to Pakistani overseas scientists under Faculty Development Program.
- In Finland, the Docents' Union of Finland and the Finnish Ministry of Education recommend the term Adjunct Professor in English as a translation of the title of Docent. A docentship should be regarded as an educational title not connected with the employment pyramid as such, rather an assurance of the level of expertise, to enable the person to advance further in his/her academic career. The rank of a docent entitles scientists to be principal investigators, lead research groups and act as the supervisors of doctoral students.