Acid phosphatase (EC 184.108.40.206, acid phosphomonoesterase, phosphomonoesterase, glycerophosphatase, acid monophosphatase, acid phosphohydrolase, acid phosphomonoester hydrolase, uteroferrin, acid nucleoside diphosphate phosphatase, orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum)) is a phosphatase, a type of enzyme, used to free attached phosphoryl groups from other molecules during digestion. It can be further classified as a phosphomonoesterase. Acid phosphatase is stored in lysosomes and functions when these fuse with endosomes, which are acidified while they function; therefore, it has an acid pH optimum. This enzyme is present in many animal and plant species.
Acid phosphatase tetramer, Human prostate gland
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Different forms of acid phosphatase are found in different organs, and their serum levels are used to evaluate the success of the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. In the past, they were also used to diagnose this type of cancer.
It's also used as a cytogenetic marker to distinguish the two different lineages of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia(ALL) : B-ALL ( a leukemia of B Lymphocytes ) is Acid-Phosphatase negative , T-ALL ( originating instead from T Lymphocytes ) is acid-phosphatase positive .
Acid phosphatase catalyzes the following reaction at an optimal acidic pH (below 7):
- Orthophosphoric monoester + H2O → alcohol + H3PO4
Phosphatase enzymes are also used by soil microorganisms to access organically bound phosphate nutrients. An assay on the rates of activity of these enzymes may be used to ascertain biological demand for phosphates in the soil.
Certain bacteria like Nocardia, can degrade this enzyme and utilize it as a carbon source.
Bone acid phosphataseEdit
The following genes encode the polypeptide components for various acid phosphatase isoenzymes.
- Henneberry MO, Engel G, Grayhack JT (October 1979). "Acid phosphatase". The Urologic Clinics of North America. 6 (3): 629–41. PMID 388794.
- Bull H, Murray PG, Thomas D, Fraser AM, Nelson PN (April 2002). "Acid phosphatases". Molecular Pathology. 55 (2): 65–72. doi:10.1136/mp.55.2.65. PMC 1187150. PMID 11950951.
- Minkin C (May 1982). "Bone acid phosphatase: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of osteoclast function". Calcified Tissue International. 34 (3): 285–90. doi:10.1007/BF02411252. PMID 6809291.