Acharya Bhikshu (Jain Monk)

Acharya Bhikshu (1726–1803) was the founder and first spiritual head of the Svetambar Terapanth sect of Jainism.[1][2]


Acharya Shree Bhikshu Painting.jpg
Born(1726-07-01)1 July 1726
Kantaliya, Rajasthan
DiedAugust 30 1803
1st Page of Letter of Conduct written by Acharya Bhikshu
2nd Page of Letter of Conduct written by Jain Swetamber Terapanth First Spiritual Head Acharya Bhiksu in Rajasthani Language nearly 200 years ago

He was a Devotee of Mahavira. In the initial phase of his spiritual revolution, he moved out from the group of Sthanakvasi Acharya Raghunath. That time he had 13 saints, 13 followers and 13 the basic rules. This coincidence results in the name of "Terapanth" (Thirteen Path) and he referred it as "Hey Prabhu Yaha Terapanth".[3][4]

The various beliefs and teachings of the religious orders of those times greatly influenced his thinking. He studied and analysed the various disciplines of the Jain religion and on this basis he compiled his own ideologies and principles of the Jain way of life. Based on the doctrines propagated, Acharya Bhikshu rigorously followed the principles. It was this way of life that was demonstrated by Acharya Bhikshu which became the foundation principle of Terapanth. The Letter of Conduct was written by him is still followed in the same manner with due respect with slight changes as per the time & situation. The original copy of letter written in Rajasthani language is still available. His followers piously referred to this monk as 'Swamiji' or 'Bhikshu Swami'.[citation needed]

Acharya Bhikshu visualised a systematic, well established and orderly religious sect and saw it taking shape through Terapanth. To organise and stabilise this religious order he propagated the ideology of one guru and brought to an end the concept of self discipleship.[citation needed] In this way his ideology of one Acharya, one principle, one thought and similar thinking became the ideal for other religious sects. Acharya Bhikshu said the common man should understand and practise true religion which would take him to the path of salvation.[citation needed]


Acharya Bhikshu (aka Bhikhanji) was born in Kantaliya in Rajasthan in 1726. He belonged to a merchant class named Bisa Oswal. He was initiated as a monk by a Sthanakvasi Acarya Ragunathji in 1751. Upon reading the scriptures, he found that the order of monks have wandered away from true teachings of Jainism; Ragunathji seconded the same but was unwilling to bring the same in the sect as they were hard to follow by the other monks.[5]


In the middle of the 18th century, Acharya Bhikshu led a reformist movement. A philosopher, writer, poet and social reformer, he wrote 38,000 "shlokas", now compiled in two volumes as "Bhikshu Granth Ratnakar". His "Nav Padarth Sadbhav", which advocated a society free from exploitation, and is regarded[who?] as a significant philosophical composition that deals exhaustively with the nine gems of Jain philosophy.[citation needed]

Postage stampEdit

Acharya Bhikshu 2004 Stamp

On 30 June 2004, the vice-president,[specify] Bhairon Singh Shekhawat had released a special commemorative postage stamp in memory of Jain saint Acharya Shri Bhikshu on the occasion of the "nirvana" bicentenary. The stamp issued by the Department of Posts is in Rs. 5 denomination. Two special functions were organised to release this Rs. 5/- stamp. The first function was organised at the residence of Vice-President of India, Shri Bhairo Singh Shekhavat at New Delhi. Second release function was organised at Siriyari (District. Pali, Rajasthan) where Acharya Bhikshu had attained Nirvana.[citation needed]

Main EventsEdit

Achraya Shree Bikshuswami
Date of birth V.S.1783, Asaad Sukla Troyodeshi, Tuesday
Place of Birth Kantaliya
Father's Name Ballushah
Mother's Name Deepa bai
Date of Diksha D. Di. V. S. 1808. Bhav Di. V. S. 1810, Asaad Shukla Purnima (as per Hindu Calendar)
Place of Bhav Diksha Kelwa
New Diksha of Sadhu & Sadhvis during Acharya period. Sadhu: 46 Sadhvi: 56
Date of passing away (Devlokgaman) V. S. 1860 Bhadrav Shukla. Trayodashi 7 prahar(as per Hindu Calendar)In the place of Maniklalji Somavath, Siriyari. It has become one of the big holi place. Maniklalji SOMAVATH Family retains the place.
Tenure as Acharya 43 years and 2 months
No of Sadhu & Sadhvi at the time of passing away. Sadhu: 21 Sadhvi: 27

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Dundas, Paul (2002). The Jains. Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-415-26606-8.
  2. ^ Singh, Narendra (2001). "Acahrya Bhikshu and Terapanth". Encyclopaedia of Jainism. Anmol Publications. p. 5184. ISBN 81-261-0691-3.
  3. ^ Shashi, S. S. (1996). Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Origin and development of Indus civilization (Volume 1). Anmol Publications. p. 945. ISBN 81-7041-859-3.
  4. ^ Vallely, Anne (2002). Guardians of the transcendent: an ethnography of a Jain ascetic community. University of Toronto Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-8020-8415-X.
  5. ^ Dundas, Paul (2002). The Jains. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 0-415-26606-8.

External linksEdit