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Vachellia sieberiana, until recently known as Acacia sieberiana[5][6][7] and commonly known as the paperbark thorn or paperbark acacia, is a tree native to Africa and introduced into Pakistan.[4] It is used in many areas for various purposes. The tree varies from 3 to 25 m in height, with a trunk diameter of 0.6 to 1.8 m.[8] It is not listed as being a threatened species.[4]

Paperbark acacia
Kirstenbosch - Acacia sieberiana.jpg
In Kirstenbosch, Cape Town
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Vachellia
Species: V. sieberiana
Binomial name
Vachellia sieberiana
(DC.) Kyal. & Boatwr. 2013[1]
varieties[2]
  • Vachellia sieberiana var. sieberiana (DC.) Kyal. & Boatwr.
  • Vachellia sieberiana var. villosa (A.Chev.) Kyal. & Boatwr.
  • Vachellia sieberiana var. woodii (Burtt Davy) Kyal. & Boatwr.
Synonyms[4]
  • Acacia abyssinica sensu auct.
  • Acacia amboensis Schinz
  • Acacia davyi sensu auct.
  • Acacia purpurascens Vatke
  • Acacia sieberiana DC.
  • Acacia sieberiana subsp. vermoesenii (De Wild.)Troupin
  • Acacia vermoesenii De Wild.
  • Vachellia sieberiana (DC.) Ali 2014[3]

Contents

UsesEdit

Vachellia sieberiana is valued largely as a source of forage, medicine and wood. The inner bark is a source of fibre purposes such as stringing beads[8]). The gum is edible) and both livestock and game animals browse the tree and feed on the dropped pods, spreading viable seeds in their dung.

 
Close-up of the leaves
 
The creamy-white, spherical flower heads
 
A close-up of the papery bark that gives the tree its vernacular name

The flowers of the tree make good forage for bees and bee hives are put directly in the trees to exploit the resource.[8] The leaves of the tree commonly release toxic chemical compounds when the tree has been heavily browsed, some of the compounds may release hydrogen cyanide when ingested, which may be lethal to cattle. The fallen pods and foliage can provide lifesaving forage during dry times of the year.[8]

The gum of the tree is used as food, as an adhesive, and as an ingredient in making ink.

Traditional medicinal usesEdit

In Africa, the bark or root is used to treat urinary tract inflammation. The bark has astringent properties and it is used to treat colds, cough, and childhood fever.[8] According to the World AgroForestry Centre,

"A decoction of the root is taken as remedy for stomach-ache. The bark, leaves and gums are used to treat tapeworm, bilharzia, haemorrhage, orchitis, colds, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, kidney problems, syphilis, ophthalmia, rheumatism and disorders of the circulatory system. It is also used as an astringent. The pods serve as an emollient, and the roots for stomach-ache, acne, tapeworms, urethral problems, oedema and dropsy."[8]

Nitrogen fixationEdit

Vachellia sieberiana is a legume and like many legumes it hosts Rhizobium bacteria in its roots. The bacteria fix nitrogen gas from the air and, without requiring nitrogen fertilizer or soil nitrates, they convert it into nitrogen compounds necessary for plant nutrition. Ultimately, surrounding plants also benefit from the increase in available nitrogen, which means that plants such as Vachellia species are of particular ecological importance.[8]

TanninEdit

Tannin is found in the bark and seed pods.[8]

WoodEdit

The wood is fairly hard and it is used for furniture, handles for implements and tools for grinding grain manually.[8] The wood of V. sieberiana has a density of about 655 kg/m³.[9]

Ecology and conservationEdit

This tree is widespread in its natural habitat and is not threatened. It is browsed upon by livestock and game such as elephant and giraffe.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kyalangalilwa B, Boatwright JS, Daru BH, Maurin O, van der Bank M (2013). "Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 172 (4): 500–523. doi:10.1111/boj.12047. 
  2. ^ ILDIS List
  3. ^ Ali SI. (2014). "The Genus Acacia s.l. in Pakistan" (PDF). Pak J Bot. 46 (1): 1–4. 
  4. ^ a b c ILDIS LegumeWeb
  5. ^ "Acacia sieberiana". The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Hyde, Mark; et al. "Acacia sieberiana DC. var. woodii (Burtt Davy) Keay & Brenan". Flora of Zimbabwe. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  7. ^ Joffe, Pitta. "Vachellia sieberiana DC. var. woodii (Burtt Davy) Keay & Brenan". PlantzAfrica. SANBI. Retrieved 28 July 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i World Agroforestry Centre Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ "Tables(Cont. a)". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 

External linksEdit