This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In computer architecture, 8-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 8 bits (1 octet) wide. Also, 8-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. '8-bit' is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.
The term '8-bit' is also applied to the character sets that could be used on computers with 8-bit bytes, the best known being various forms of extended ASCII, including the ISO/IEC 8859 series of national character sets – especially Latin 1 for English and Western European languages.
The IBM System/360 introduced byte-addressable memory with 8-bit bytes, as opposed to bit-addressable or decimal digit-addressable or word-addressable memory, although its general purpose registers were 32 bits wide, and addresses were contained in the lower 24 bits of those addresses. Different models of System/360 had different internal data path widths; the IBM System/360 Model 30 (1965) implemented the 32-bit System/360 architecture, but had an 8 bit native path width, and performed 32-bit arithmetic 8 bits at a time.
The first widely adopted 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8080, being used in many hobbyist computers of the late 1970s and early 1980s, often running the CP/M operating system; it had 8-bit data words and 16-bit addresses. The Zilog Z80 (compatible with the 8080) and the Motorola 6800 were also used in similar computers. The Z80 and the MOS Technology 6502 8-bit CPUs were widely used in home computers and second- and third-generation game consoles of the 1970s and 1980s. Many 8-bit CPUs or microcontrollers are the basis of today's ubiquitous embedded systems.
There are 28 (256) different possible values for 8 bits. When unsigned, it has possible values ranging from 0 to 255; when signed, it has -128 to 127.
8-bit CPUs use an 8-bit data bus and can therefore access 8 bits of data in a single machine instruction. The address bus is typically a double octet wide (i.e. 16-bit), due to practical and economical considerations. This implies a direct address space of 64 KB on most 8-bit processors.
Notable 8-bit CPUsEdit
The first commercial 8-bit processor was the Intel 8008 (1972) which was originally intended for the Datapoint 2200 intelligent terminal. Most competitors to Intel started off with such character oriented 8-bit microprocessors. Modernized variants of these 8-bit machines are still one of the most common types of processor in embedded systems.
Another notable 8-bit CPU is the MOS Technology 6502. It, and variants of it, were used in a number of personal computers, such as the Apple I and Apple II, the Atari 8-bit family, the BBC Micro, and the Commodore PET and Commodore VIC-20, and in a number of video game consoles, such as the Atari 2600 and the Nintendo Entertainment System.
|Intel||8008||1972||Datapoint 2200 compatible|
|Intel||8080||1974||8008 source compatible|
|MOS||6502||1975||Similar to 6800, but incompatible|
|Microchip||PIC||1975||Harvard architecture microcontroller|
|Electronic Arrays||EA9002||1976||8-bit data, 12-bit addressing|
|Zilog||Z80||1976||8080 binary compatible|
|Intel||8085||1977||8080 binary compatible|
|Zilog||Z8||1978||Harvard architecture microcontroller|
|Motorola||6809||1978||6800 source compatible|
|Intel||8051||1980||Harvard architecture microcontroller|
|Motorola||68008||1982||32-bit registers, 20-bit or 22-bit addressing, three 16-bit ALUs, 8-bit data bus; Motorola 68000 software-compatible, 6809 hardware-compatible|
|MOS||6510||1982||Enhanced 6502 custom-made for use in the Commodore 64|
|Ricoh||2A03||1982||6502 clone minus BCD instructions for the Nintendo Entertainment System|
|Zilog||Z180||1985||Z80 binary compatible|
|Zilog||EZ80||1999||Z80 binary compatible|
|Hudson||HuC6280||65C02 binary compatible|
- Amdahl, G. M.; Blaauw, G. A.; Brooks, F. P. (1964). "Architecture of the IBM System/360" (PDF). IBM Journal of Research and Development. 8 (2): 87–101. doi:10.1147/rd.82.0087. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-10.
- "NEC 78K0". NEC. Archived from the original on 2008-10-28. Retrieved 2009-02-10.