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3754 Kathleen, provisional designation 1931 FM, is a large background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 55 kilometers (34 miles) in diameter. It was discovered at the Lowell Observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, on 16 March 1931, by American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, who named it after his granddaughter Kathleen Clifford.[1] The assumed C-type asteroid has a rotation period of 11.18 hours.[4] It is the second-highest numbered main-belt asteroid larger than 50 kilometers.[14]

3754 Kathleen
Discovery [1]
Discovered byC. W. Tombaugh
Discovery siteLowell Obs.
Discovery date16 March 1931
MPC designation(3754) Kathleen
Named after
Kathleen Clifford[1]
(Discoverer's granddaughter)
1931 FM · 1925 BF
1929 WA1 · 1955 MR
1957 WH1 · 1959 CH1
1959 EC1 · 1963 WD
1977 KR · 1978 NM2
1982 DQ4 · 1985 UD4
1987 BK · A909 HE
main-belt[1][2] · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc108.53 yr (39,639 d)
Aphelion3.4993 AU
Perihelion2.8168 AU
3.1581 AU
5.61 yr (2,050 d)
0° 10m 32.16s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
53.03 km (derived)[4]
53.23±1.8 km[5]
53.699±0.248 km[6]
54.283±1.200 km[7]
57.27±0.69 km[8]
58.64±20.04 km[9]
59.367±14.24 km[10]
11.16±0.01 h[11]
11.17±0.02 h[11]
11.18±0.01 h[12]
11.2±0.1 h[13]
0.0435 (derived)[4]
C (assumed)[4]


Orbit and classificationEdit

Kathleen is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population.[3] It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.8–3.5 AU once every 5 years and 7 months (2,050 days; semi-major axis of 3.16 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.11 and an inclination of 8° with respect to the ecliptic.[2] The body's observation arc begins with its first observations as A909 HE at Heidelberg Observatory in April 1909, nearly 22 years prior to its official discovery observation at Flagstaff.[1]

Physical characteristicsEdit

Kathleen is an assumed carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[4]

Rotation periodEdit

Several rotational lightcurves of Kathleen have been obtained from photometric observations since March 2004.[11][12][13] Analysis of the best-rated lightcurve gave a rotation period of 11.18 hours with a consolidated brightness amplitude between 0.13 and 0.20 magnitude (U=3-).[4][12]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Kathleen measures between 53.23 and 59.367 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.0379 and 0.0624.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0435 and a diameter of 53.03 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.4.[4] Besides 3925 Tret'yakov, it is the highest numbered main-belt asteroid larger than 50 kilometers in diameter, of which there are 642 bodies in total, according to the JPL SBDB.[14]


This minor planet was named after Kathleen Willoughby Clifford, granddaughter of the discoverer Clyde Tombaugh (1906–1997).[1] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 28 May 1991 (M.P.C. 18306).[15]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "3754 Kathleen (1931 FM)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 3754 Kathleen (1931 FM)" (2017-10-29 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for (3754) Kathleen". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  7. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 1 May 2018. Online catalog
  9. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117.
  10. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, C.; Mainzer, A. K.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; et al. (October 2017). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 154 (4): 10. arXiv:1708.09504. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..168M. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa89ec.
  11. ^ a b c Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (3754) Kathleen". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  12. ^ a b c Mansego, Enrique Arce; Rodriguez, Pedro Brines; de Haro, Juan Lozano; Chiner, Onofre Rodrigo; Silva, Alvaro Fornas; Porta, David Herrero; et al. (October 2016). "Eighteen Asteroids Lightcurves at Asteroides Observers (OBAS) - MPPD: 2016 March-May". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (4): 332–336. Bibcode:2016MPBu...43..332M. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  13. ^ a b Torno, Steven; Oliver, Robert Lemke; Ditteon, Richard (June 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory - October 2007". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (2): 54–55. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35...54T. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  14. ^ a b "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: diameter > 50 (km) and a < 4.6 (au)". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  15. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 1 May 2018.

External linksEdit