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Candy (minor planet designation: 3015 Candy and provisional designation 1980 VN) is a carbonaceous asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 25 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 9 November 1980, by British-American astronomer Edward Bowell at Anderson Mesa Station in Flagstaff, Arizona.[13] The asteroid was named after British astronomer Michael P. Candy.[2]

3015 Candy
Discovery [1]
Discovered byE. Bowell
Discovery siteAnderson Mesa Stn.
Discovery date9 November 1980
Designations
MPC designation(3015) Candy
Named after
Michael P. Candy
(British astronomer)[2]
1980 VN · 1974 VL2
1974 XC · 1984 HS
main-belt · (outer)[1][3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc52.17 yr (19,056 days)
Aphelion3.9747 AU
Perihelion2.7983 AU
3.3865 AU
Eccentricity0.1737
6.23 yr (2,276 days)
0.7451°
0° 9m 29.52s / day
Inclination17.402°
38.162°
300.96°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions24.517±0.470 km[4][5]
33.54 km (calculated)[3]
4.6249±0.0001 h[6]
4.625±0.001 h[7]
4.62501±0.00004 h[8]
4.62516 h[9][10]
4.625223 h[11]
0.057 (assumed)[3]
0.1067±0.0173[4][5]
C[3]
11.1[1][3][5] · 11.14±0.34[12]

Orbit and classificationEdit

Candy is a background asteroid that does not belong to any known asteroid family. It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.8–4.0 AU once every 6 years and 3 months (2,276 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.17 and an inclination of 17° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The body's observation arc begins with a precovery taken at Goethe Link Observatory in May 1965, more than 15 years prior to its official discovery observation at Anderson Mesa.[13]

Physical characteristicsEdit

Candy is an assumed carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[3]

LightcurvesEdit

Several rotational lightcurves of Candy were obtained from photometric observations by astronomer Maurice Clark. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period between 4.6249 and 4.62516 hours with a brightness variation between 0.50 and 1.05 magnitude (U=3/3/3/3/3). (A high brightness amplitude typically indicates that a body has a non-spheroidal shape.)[6][7][8][9][10]

A 2016-published lightcurve, using modeled photometric data from the Lowell Photometric Database (LPD), gave a concurring period of 4.625223 hours (U=2), as well as two spin axis of (142.0°, −26.0°) and (346.0 °, −70.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[11]

Clark's spin modeling also suggests that Candy has a retrograde rotation, and a spin axis of (306.0°, 43.0.0°), that is nearly aligned with the body's shortest axis.[10]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the survey carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Candy measures 24.517 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.1067,[4][5] while the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous of 0.057, and calculates a diameter of 33.54 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.1.[3]

NamingEdit

This minor planet was named after Michael P. Candy (1928–1994) a British astronomer and discoverer of minor planets and comets, who was a director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and Perth Observatory.[2]

As a long-time astrometrist and orbit computer, he discovered comet C/1960 Y1 (Candy) at Greenwich, as well as the minor planet 3898 Curlewis, 3893 DeLaeter and 3894 Williamcooke. He was also president of IAU's Commission VI.[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 22 June 1986 (M.P.C. 10845).[14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 3015 Candy (1980 VN)" (2017-07-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(3015) Candy". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (3015) Candy. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 248. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_3016. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (3015) Candy". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  6. ^ a b Clark, Maurice (April 2012). "Asteroid Lightcurves from the Preston Gott Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 39 (2): 63–65. Bibcode:2012MPBu...39...63C. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b Clark, Maurice (March 2007). "Lightcurve Results for 1318 Nerina, 222 Lermontov 3015 Candy, 3089 Oujianquan, 3155 Lee, 6410 Fujiwara, 6500 Kodaira, (8290) 1992 NP, 9566 Rykhlova, (42923) 1999 SR18, and 2001 FY". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 34 (1): 19–22. Bibcode:2007MPBu...34...19C. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b Clark, Maurice (January 2016). "Asteroid Photometry from the Preston Gott Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (1): 2–5. Bibcode:2016MPBu...43....2C. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  9. ^ a b Clark, Maurice (January 2015). "Asteroid Photometry from the Preston Gott Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 42 (1): 15–20. Bibcode:2015MPBu...42...15C. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  10. ^ a b c Clark, Maurice (January 2016). "Shape Modelling of Asteriods 1708 Polit, 2036 Sheragul, and 3015 Candy". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (1): 80–86. Bibcode:2016MPBu...43...80C. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b Durech, J.; Hanus, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Vanco, R. (March 2016). "Asteroid models from the Lowell photometric database". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 587: 6. arXiv:1601.02909. Bibcode:2016A&A...587A..48D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527573. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  12. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 – Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  13. ^ a b "3015 Candy (1980 VN)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 4 September 2017.

External linksEdit