|See also:||Other events of 1952|
History of the Soviet Union
- Mingrelian Affair
- Doctors' plot: A group of prominent Moscow doctors, mostly Jewish, is falsely accused of conspiring to assassinate Soviet leaders.
- 13 June – Catalina affair: Two Swedish aircraft are shot down by Soviet fighter jets over the Baltic.
- 5-14 October – The 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is held.
- 15 February – Nikolai Sorokin, actor
- 3 May – Leonid Khachiyan, mathematician
- 14 June – Robert Lepikson, Estonian racing driver and politician, Estonian Minister of the Interior (d. 2006)
- 20 August – Sergey Chemezov, CEO of Rostec
- 12 September – Sergey Karaganov, political scientist
- 7 October – Vladimir Putin, President of Russia