1921 Russian Supreme Soviet election

Elections to the 9th All-Russian Congress of Soviets were held in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the spring of 1921 (not to be confused with the 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)). They were the second elections in the history of the Soviet government, with the first such election in 1919, also to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, not including one to the Petrograd Soviet in 1917, before the last stage of the Russian Revolution.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] There was some tension that year because of the revolt of sailors in the Kronstadt rebellion, actions of the Workers Opposition and monarchists, recent failure of a "communist uprising" in Germany (so called March Action), all while the fierce Russian Civil War continued unabated.[11][12][13][14]

As the Bolshevik party, later called the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was reshaped by the elections, the Soviet government felt pressured to take action, so it attempted to welcome foreign investments with agreements of cooperation with Great Britain, Persia, and Afghanistan, nationalized of mosques in Crimea and began to implement the New Economic Policy or NEP.[15][16][17][18] While the foreign policy efforts by Soviet Russia led to increased recognition internationally, other efforts faltered. The following year, the Soviet Union would be formed with the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and the All-Union Congress of Soviets would serve as the unicameral legislature for the whole Soviet state, a position it would occupy until 1938 when the Supreme Soviet of Russia would be created.

ConductEdit

The elections were considered to be a "semi-free" by some[by whom?], because non-Bolshevik candidates could stand for office.[19][20][21][22][23]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sheila Fitzpatrick, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union 1921-1934, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979, p. 31, 88, 128, 132, 193.
  2. ^ The village and volost Soviet elections of 1919.
  3. ^ Nikolai Bukharin of the Russian People’s Commissary, "Soviets or Parliament," 1919.
  4. ^ Amadeo Bordiga, The System of Communist Representation, May 1919.
  5. ^ Mary McAuley, Bread and Justice: State and Society in Petrograd 1917-1922.
  6. ^ USSR: Communist Party: 1917-1919.
  7. ^ Joseph Stalin, "Results of the Petrograd Municipal Elections," June 15, 1917.
  8. ^ The New York Times, "END OF THE SOVIET UNION; Gorbachev's Six Tumultuous Years at Soviet Helm," December 26, 1991.
  9. ^ Rasma Karklins, "Soviet Elections Revisited: Voter Abstention in Noncompetitive Voting."
  10. ^ Jonathan Smele,The Russian Revolution and Civil War 1917-1921: An Annotated Bibliography, London: Continuum, 2003, p. 143, 155, 378, 391, 428, 518.
  11. ^ Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 1999. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 23.
  12. ^ Voline, The Unknown Revolution, 1917-1921, New York: Black Rose Books, 1990, p. 481.
  13. ^ Martin Mccauley, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, New York: Routledge, 2013, reprint, p. 52-53, 58, 60, 62, 64, 88-90, 91, 118, 123, 131, 482, 484, 488.
  14. ^ The Russian Revolution and the Soviet State 1917–1921: Documents, ed. Martin McCauley, London: MacMillan Press, 1980, reprint, p. xxii, xxx, 13, 19, 21, 63, 66, 68, 113, 116, 179, 311.
  15. ^ L.S. Srivastava and V.P. Joshi, "International Relations: From 1914 to the Present Day", India: Goel Publishing House, 2005, Ninth Edition, p. 148.
  16. ^ Martin Mccauley, The Soviet Union 1917-1991, New York: Routledge, 1993, Second Edition, p. 40.
  17. ^ Islamic Education in the Soviet Union and Its Successor States, ed. Michael Kemper, Raoul Motika, and Stefan Reichmuth, New York: Routledge, 2010, p. 80.
  18. ^ Simon Pirani, The Russian Revolution in Retreat, 1920–24: Soviet Workers and the New Communist Elite, New York: Routledge, 2008, p. 8
  19. ^ Allan Todd, History for the IB Diploma Paper 3: The Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Russia (1924-2000), Second Edition, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 220.
  20. ^ Allan Todd, History for the IB Diploma: Communism in Crisis 1976-89, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 100
  21. ^ Guide to the Boris I. Nicolaevsky Collection in the Hoover Institution Archives Part I, compiled by Anna M. Bourguina and Michael Jakobson, Sanford University: Hoover Institution, 1989, p. 7, 9, 14.
  22. ^ Simon Pirani, The Russian Revolution in Retreat, 1920–24: Soviet Workers and the New Communist Elite, New York: Routledge, 2008, p. 8, 40, 51, 69, 85-86, 93, 96-102, 119.
  23. ^ A Dream Deferred: New Studies in Russian and Soviet Labour History, ed. Donald A. Filtzer, Wendy Z. Goldman, Gijs Kessler, and Simon Pirani, Bern: Peter Lang, 2008, p. 96, 115-116, 488.