1420 Caldera earthquake

The 1420 Caldera earthquake shook the southern portion of Atacama Desert on September 1 and caused tsunamis in Chile as well as Hawaii and the towns of Japan. The earthquake is thought to have had a size of 8.8–9.4 Mw.[1][2] Historical records of the tsunami exist for the Japanese harbours of Kawarago and Aiga where confused residents saw the water recede in the morning of September 1,[1] without any sign of an earthquake.[3] In Chile, rockfalls occurred along the coast as well, producing blocks of up to 40 tons that are now found inland.[1] This is also consistent with the identification of a possible tsunami deposit in Mejillones Bay that has been dated to the range 1409 to 1449.[4][5] Deposits found by coring of recent sediments in wetland near Tongoy Bay have also been linked to the 1420 tsunami.[6]

1420 Caldera earthquake
1420 Caldera earthquake is located in Chile
1420 Caldera earthquake
Local dateSeptember 1, 1420 (1420-09)
Magnitude8.8–9.4 Mw
Epicenter27°00′S 71°00′W / 27.0°S 71.0°W / -27.0; -71.0Coordinates: 27°00′S 71°00′W / 27.0°S 71.0°W / -27.0; -71.0
Areas affectedChile

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Guzmán, L. (February 14, 2019). "Encuentran registros de megaterremoto ocurrido hace seis siglos en el norte de Chile". El Mercurio (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
  2. ^ Abad M.; Izquierdo T.; Cáceres M.; Bernárdez E.; Rodríguez-Vidal J. (2018). "Coastal boulder deposit as evidence of an ocean-wide prehistoric tsunami originated on the Atacama Desert coast (northern Chile)". Sedimentology. 67 (3): 1505–1528. doi:10.1111/sed.12570. S2CID 135386871.
  3. ^ Tsuji Y. (2013). "Catalog of Distant Tsunamis Reaching Japan from Chile and Peru" (PDF). Report of Tsunami Engineering. 30: 62. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 20, 2020.
  4. ^ Vargas, G.; Ortlieb, L.; Chapron, E.; Valdes, J.; Marquardt, C. (2005). "Paleoseismic inferences from a high-resolution marine sedimentary record in northern Chile (23°S)". Tectonophysics. 399 (1–4): 381–398. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2004.12.031.
  5. ^ Ruiz, S.; Madariaga, R. (2018). "Historical and recent large megathrust earthquakes in Chile". Tectonophysics. 733: 37–56. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2018.01.015.
  6. ^ Araya, K.; Muñoz, P.; Dezileau, L.; Maldonado, A.; Campos-Caba, R.; Rebolledo, L.; Cardenas, P.; Salamanca, M. (2022). "Extreme Sea Surges, Tsunamis and Pluvial Flooding Events during the Last ~1000 Years in the Semi-Arid Wetland, Coquimbo Chile". Geosciences. 12 (3): 135. doi:10.3390/geosciences12030135.