1216 Askania, provisional designation 1932 BL, is a stony Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 9 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 29 January 1932, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany.[10] It was named after the company Askania Werke, a German manufacturer of precision instruments.[2]

1216 Askania
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date29 January 1932
MPC designation(1216) Askania
Named after
Askania Werke
(German manufacturer)[2]
1932 BL · 1952 DH
1984 YY6 · A909 GF
main-belt · (inner)
Flora[3][4] · background[5]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc110.32 yr (40,295 days)
Aphelion2.6325 AU
Perihelion1.8328 AU
2.2327 AU
3.34 yr (1,219 days)
0° 17m 43.44s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
7.21±0.38 km[6]
9.62±2.53 km[7]
10.08±0.54 km[8]
10.533±0.089 km[6]
6.536±0.003 h[9]
0.24 (assumed)[3]
Tholen = S[1] · S[3]
B–V = 0.903[1]

Orbit and classificationEdit

Askania orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.8–2.6 AU once every 3 years and 4 months (1,219 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.18 and an inclination of 8° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The asteroid is a member of the Flora family, one of the largest families in the asteroid belt.[4][a] Conversely, it is considered a background asteroid when applying the hierarchical clustering method to it proper orbital elements.[5]

The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Heidelberg in 1932. In July 1906, a first precovery was taken at the Lowell Observatory, and in April 1909, the asteroid was first identified at the discovering observatory as A909 GF.[10]


The minor planet was named after "Askania Werke AG", a manufacturer of optical and astronomical instruments in Berlin (also see Cinetheodolite).[1] The company went on to develop the auto pilot of the V-1 bomb in the following years.[11] The official naming citation was published by Paul Herget in The Names of the Minor Planets in 1955 (H 112).[2]

Physical characteristicsEdit

In the Tholen classification, Askania is a common stony S-type asteroid.[1]


Lightcurve observations of Askania at the Menke Observatory in July 2006, show a well-defined periodicity of 6.536 hours, during which time the brightness of the body varies by 0.30 magnitude (U=3-).[9]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite, and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Askania measures between 7.21 and 10.533 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.064 and 0.15.[6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.24 – derived from 8 Flora, an stony asteroid and largest member and namesake of the Flora family – and calculates a diameter of 5.44 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 13.49.[3][a]


  1. ^ a b The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link groups any asteroid into the Flora family that has a semi-major axis, inclination and eccentricity in the following ranges: 2.15 < a < 2.35; 0.03 < e < 0.23: 1.5 < i < 8. However, modern synthetic clustering models exclude (1216) Askania from the Flora family, see AstDyS-2 and Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1216 Askania (1932 BL)" (2016-11-23 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1216) Askania". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1216) Askania. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 101. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1217. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (1216) Askania". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  4. ^ a b Alfvén, H. (May 1969). "Asteroidal Jet Streams". Astrophysics and Space Science. 4 (1): 84–102(Ap&SSHomepage). Bibcode:1969Ap&SS...4...84A. doi:10.1007/BF00651264. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Asteroid 1216 Askania – Proper Elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 October 2019. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  9. ^ a b Menke, John; Cooney, Walt; Gross, John; Terrell, Dirk; Higgins, David (October 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Menke Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (4): 155–160. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..155M. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  10. ^ a b "1216 Askania (1932 BL)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  11. ^ Zaloga, Steven (2005). V-1 Flying Bomb 1942–52. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84176-791-8.

External linksEdit