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1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the formula CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
OH
(sometimes represented as PrOH or n-PrOH). This colorless liquid is also known as propan-1-ol, 1-propyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, and n-propanol. It is an isomer of 2-propanol (propan-2-ol, isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol). It is formed naturally in small amounts during many fermentation processes and used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry, mainly for resins and cellulose esters.

1-Propanol
Skeletal formula of 1-propanol
Ball and stick model of 1-propanol
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Propan-1-ol[1]
Other names
  • n-Propyl alcohol
  • n-Propanol
  • n-PrOH
  • Ethylcarbinol
  • 1-Hydroxypropane
  • Propionic alcohol
  • Propionyl alcohol
  • Propionylol
  • Propyl alcohol
  • Propylic alcohol
  • Propylol
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet
1098242
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.679
EC Number
  • 200-746-9
25616
KEGG
MeSH 1-Propanol
RTECS number
  • UH8225000
UNII
UN number 1274
Properties
C3H8O
Molar mass 60.096 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor mild, alcohol-like[2]
Density 0.803 g/mL
Melting point −126 °C; −195 °F; 147 K
Boiling point 97 to 98 °C; 206 to 208 °F; 370 to 371 K
miscible
log P 0.329
Vapor pressure 1.99 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 16
Basicity (pKb) −2
−45.176·10−6 cm3/mol
1.387
Viscosity 1.959 mPa·s (at 25 °C) [3]
1.68 D
Thermochemistry
143.96 J/(K·mol)
192.8 J/(K·mol)
−302.79…−302.29 kJ/mol
−2.02156…−2.02106 MJ/mol
Pharmacology
D08AX03 (WHO)
Hazards
GHS pictograms GHS02: Flammable GHS05: Corrosive GHS07: Harmful
GHS Signal word Danger
H225, H318, H336
P210, P261, P280, P305+351+338
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
1
0
Flash point 22 °C (72 °F; 295 K)
371 °C (700 °F; 644 K)
Explosive limits 2.2–13.7%[2]
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
2800 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)
6800 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
1870 mg/kg (rat, oral)[4]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 200 ppm (500 mg/m3)[2]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 200 ppm (500 mg/m3) ST 250 ppm (625 mg/m3) [skin][2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
800 ppm[2]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Propane
Isopropyl alcohol
Propanamine
Ethanol
Butanol
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constantr), etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas
UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Chemical propertiesEdit

1-Propanol shows the normal reactions of a primary alcohol. Thus it can be converted to alkyl halides; for example red phosphorus and iodine produce n-propyl iodide in 80% yield, while PCl
3
with catalytic ZnCl
2
gives n-propyl chloride. Reaction with acetic acid in the presence of an H
2
SO
4
catalyst under Fischer esterification conditions gives propyl acetate, while refluxing propanol overnight with formic acid alone can produce propyl formate in 65% yield. Oxidation of 1-propanol with Na
2
Cr
2
O
7
and H
2
SO
4
gives only a 36% yield of propionaldehyde, and therefore for this type of reaction higher yielding methods using PCC or the Swern oxidation are recommended. Oxidation with chromic acid yields propionic acid.

PreparationEdit

1-Propanol is manufactured by catalytic hydrogenation of propionaldehyde. The propionaldehyde is itself produced via the oxo process, by hydroformylation of ethylene using carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst such as cobalt octacarbonyl or a rhodium complex.[5]

H
2
C=CH
2
+ CO + H
2
→ CH
3
CH
2
CH=O
CH
3
CH
2
CH=O + H
2
→ CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
OH

A traditional laboratory preparation of 1-propanol involves treating n-propyl iodide with moist Ag
2
O
.

1-Propanol was discovered in 1853 by Gustave C. B. Chancel, who obtained it by fractional distillation of fusel oil. Indeed, 1-propanol is a major constituent of fusel oil, a by-product formed from certain amino acids when potatoes or grains are fermented to produce ethanol. This process is no longer a significant source of 1-propanol.

SafetyEdit

1-Propanol is thought to be similar to ethanol in its effects on the human body, but 2–4 times more potent. Oral LD50 in rats is 1870 mg/kg (compared to 7060 mg/kg for ethanol). It is metabolized into propionic acid. Effects include alcoholic intoxication and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. As of 2011, only one case of lethal 1-propanol poisoning was reported.[6]

InhalationEdit

Although this method is rare, it does exist. Propanol might be much more convenient than ethanol for inhalation because of its potency with nebulizers.

Propanol as fuelEdit

1-propanol has high octane numbers and it is suitable for engine fuel usage. However, the production of propanol has been too expensive to make it a common fuel. The research octane number (RON) of propanol is 118 and anti-knock index (AKI) is 108.[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Favre HA, Powell WH (2014). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 61. doi:10.1039/9781849733069. ISBN 9780854041824.
  2. ^ a b c d e NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0533". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. ^ Pal A, Gaba R (2008). "Volumetric, acoustic, and viscometric studies of molecular interactions in binary mixtures of dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether with 1-alkanols at 298.15 K". J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40 (5): 818–828. doi:10.1016/j.jct.2008.01.008.
  4. ^ "n-Propyl alcohol". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  5. ^ Papa AJ (2011). "Propanols". Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_173.pub2. ISBN 9783527303854.
  6. ^ Unmack JL (2011). "N-PROPANOL Health-Base Assessment and Recommendation for HEAC" (PDF).
  7. ^ "Bioalcohols". Biofuel.org.uk. 2010. Retrieved 16 Apr 2014.

Further readingEdit

  1. Furniss, B. S.; Hannaford, A. J.; Smith, P. W. G.; Tatchell, A. R. (1989), Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry (5th ed.), Harlow: Longman, ISBN 0-582-46236-3
  2. Lide DR, ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). TF-CRC. ISBN 0849304873.
  3. O'Neil MJ, ed. (2006). The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (14th ed.). Merck. ISBN 091191000X.
  4. Perkin WH, Kipping FS (1922). Organic Chemistry. London: W. & R. Chambers. ISBN 0080223540.

External linksEdit