École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech (originally called École nationale des ponts et chaussées or ENPC, also nicknamed Ponts) is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science, engineering and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles.
|Type||French grande école, member of ParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology)|
|Affiliations||ParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology), Conférence des Grandes Ecoles, Paris School of Economics.|
Historically, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, mechanics, finance, economics, innovation, urban studies, environment and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today largely international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, and 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign.
The school is under the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy of France.
Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées. In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads, bridges and canals, and in the training of civil engineers.
The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, engineer, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students (among whom Lebon, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Pierre-Simon Girard, Riche de Prony, Méchain and Brémontier), initially taught themselves geometry, algebra, mechanics and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, which was usually four to twelve years long.
1794–1848: Growth and industrialisationEdit
During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads (including Barré de Saint-Venant, Belgrand, Biot, Cauchy, Coriolis, Dupuit, Fresnel, Gay-Lussac, Navier, Vicat) took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, and in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects. Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, bridges, but also administrative buildings, barracks and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a historical and influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction strongly influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers. The school also gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning.
1848–1945: The big worksEdit
As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, and the control of the students’ works. For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads, bridges and canals is strongly influenced by engineers from the school (Becquerel, Bienvenüe, Caquot, Carnot, Colson, Coyne, Freyssinet, Résal, Séjourné), who deeply modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries.
After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering. As civil engineering was requiring increasingly higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From then on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic, social, and economic. Gradually, the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector highly trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building, urbanism and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme. More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues.
École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, mechanics, economics, finance, environment, transport, town & regional planning, logistics and innovation.
École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school also offers specialized/research masters and PhDs. It has recently opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation.
The Ingénieur programmeEdit
This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school. It is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science (including a Bachelor of Science).
Admissions for engineering students is mostly done after scientific preparatory classes (MP, PSI, PC) through the highly selective "Mines-Ponts" competitive entrance exams. Some places are open each year to French and foreign university students as well as BCPST (biology) scientific preparatory classes
École des Ponts recruits among the top 4% of the students in preparatory classes.
École des Ponts offers a wide range of master's degrees, drawing on its historical domains of expertise. Some of them are in partnership with other high-profile institutions.
Mechanics, materials, civil engineering, nuclear engineering
- Master Nuclear Energy, dismantling and waste management
- Master Mechanics of Materials and Structures (MMS)
- Master Materials for Sustainable Construction (DARS)
- Master Mechanics of Soils, Rocks and Structures in their Environment (MSROE)
- Master Heritage Materials (MAPE)
Mathematics, financial mathematics, computer science
- Master Numerical Analysis, Partial differential equations (ANEDP)
- Master Applied Mathematics for Finance (MAF)
- Master Mathematics, Imaging & Machine Learning (MVA)
- Parisian Master in Operations Research (MPRO)
City, transports, environment
- Master Ocean, Atmosphere, Climate and Space Observations (OACOS)
- Master Management and Engineering for Environmental (UPDATED)
- Master Aquatic Systems and Water Management (SAGE)
- Master Transport and Mobility (TM)
- Master Transport and Sustainable Development (TraDD)
- Master Cities, Services, Uses (PLA)
- Master Analysis and Economic Policy (APE) with the Paris School of Economics
- Master Economics of Sustainable Development, Environment and Energy (EDDEE)
- Master Project Finance – Structured Finance (FI Pro)
Advanced master's programmesEdit
École des Ponts ParisTech's delivers 12 Advanced Master's programmes ("Mastère Spécialisé"):
- Advanced Master in Infrastructure Project Finance (IPF)
- Advanced Master in Public Policies and Actions for Sustainable Development (PAPDD)
- Advanced Master in Urban Planning and Development (AMUR)
- Advanced Master in Global Supply Chain Design and Optimisation (COSCG)
- Advanced Master in European Civil Engineering (GCE)
- Advanced Master in the Engineering of Large Energy Structures (GCGOE)
- Advanced Master in Real Estate, Building, Energy (IBE)
- Advanced Master in BIM, Integrated Design and building and infrastructures life cycle (BIM)
- Advanced Master in Integrated Urban Systems (IUS)
- Advanced Master in Railway and Urban Transport Systems
- Advanced Master in Urban Engineering and Information Technologies (UrbanTIC)
- Advanced Master in Electric Vehicle Engineering (IVE)
The laboratories of the school host many PhD students (and classical CIFRE theses) wishing to engage in research, the financing of which is done mainly through corporate chairs. There were 108 PhDs awarded in 2012 to students working in the laboratories of the School and the Ecole des Ponts was welcoming, in early 2013, about 457 PhD students in its laboratories. The Ingénieur programme students have the opportunity to complete their training with a PhD in the school's laboratories, or to prepare for it by pursuing a research Masters in these laboratories during their third year.
École des Ponts Business SchoolEdit
École des Ponts Business School is the business school of École des Ponts. It offers five types of programmes: Undergraduate Programs in International Management, The fully accredited Solvay-Ponts full-time MBA, the Executive MBA, the recently launched Executive DBA and the Custom & Corporate Programme.
Students from École des Ponts benefit from the proximity with the business school in two ways: they can, in parallel to their engineering studies, take the business school's undergraduate "course in International Management (cIM)" and have the opportunity to pursue its MBA in their last year of study. In coopération with the École nationale de l'aviation civile, the school offers an Executive MBA in aviation in Morocco and China.
The focus of the newly launched Executive-DBA is practical, rather than theoretical. The profile of applicants is therefore different than most PhD programs.
d.School at École des PontsEdit
As part of the Ministry of Education and Research IDEFI (Excellence Initiatives for Innovative Training) programme, the school has created the first French design school.
d.School at École des Ponts offers courses, notably through the ME310 programme in partnership with Stanford University, with a strong entrepreneurial dimension.
Corps of Bridges, Waters and ForestsEdit
Education for the Ingénieur programme is organised in the six following departments:
- Civil Engineering and Construction
- Transport, Planning, Environment
- Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
- Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences
- Economics, Management, Finance
- Industrial Engineering and Management
Partnerships with French institutionsEdit
French academic partners
- Université Paris-Est
- Paris School of Economics
- PSL Research Institute
- École des ingénieurs de la Ville de Paris (EIVP)
- Écoles de formation du MEDDE
- Conférence des Grandes Écoles
French double-degree agreements
The school also allows students to pursue a double-degree in France with the following institutions:
- École d'Architecture Marne-la-Vallée
- École nationale de l'aviation civile
- ENS Paris-Saclay
- HEC Paris
- Science Po Paris
- Paris School of Economics
- Collège des Ingénieurs
- IFP School
- École des ingénieurs de la Ville de Paris
Partnerships with international institutionsEdit
Over the years, École des Ponts ParisTech has developed institutional relationships with partners around the world and has signed cooperation agreements with other academic institutions. Among the choices available to students, it is possible to pursue a double-degree at a partner institution (4 continents, 23 countries, 33 universities in 2014) . It is also possible to pursue exchange semesters within the framework of bilateral agreements (Berkeley, Georgia Tech, Imperial College or Erasmus exchanges), or research internships in the laboratories of the school's academic partners. In particular, the school has very close ties with Brazil, China and Spain. In the second year of the Ingénieur programme, a third of the cohort comes from partner institutions.
Every year, many students get a double-degree in an establishment approved by the school, including leading universities in the United-States (Stanford, MIT, Berkeley, Princeton, Columbia), the United-Kingdom (London School of Economics, Imperial College, Oxford, Cambridge) and Asia (Tokyo University, NUS, HKU) .
One-way double-degree agreementsEdit
Apart from exchange agreements with world high-level universities, École des Ponts offers every year to selected students from some universities of France's partner countries to pursue their studies and earn the École des Ponts degree besides their original university's degree. Universities with this form of partnership include the National Engineering School of Tunis from Tunisia, the École Hassania des travaux publics from Morocco and the Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth from Lebanon.
École des Ponts ParisTech runs research in the following disciplines (the names of corresponding research centres are in brackets):
- Atmospheric environment (CEREA)
- Water, urban planning and environment (LEESU)
- Mathematics and scientific computing (CERMICS)
- Information technologies (IMAGINE)
- International environment and development (CIRED)
- Regional planning and social sciences (LATTS)
- Urban planning and transport (LVMT)
- Economics (Paris School of Economics)
- Soil mechanics (CERMES), materials (LAMI), materials and structures of civil engineering (LMSGC), grouped together within UMR Navier
Laboratoire central des ponts et chaussées or LCPC is an Établissement public à caractère scientifique et technologique.
Alumni and facultyEdit
Alumni include (by alphabetical order, French unless indicated):
- Paul Andreu, architect
- Guy Béart, singer and songwriter
- Henri Becquerel, physicist
- Eugène Belgrand, engineer
- Fulgence Bienvenüe, chief engineer for the Paris Métro
- André Blondel, engineer and physicist
- Laurent-Emmanuel Calvet, economist
- Albert Caquot, civil engineer, considered the "best living French engineer" during half a century
- Marie François Sadi Carnot, French president from 1887 to 1894
- Jules Carvallo, civil engineer
- Augustin Louis Cauchy, mathematician
- Louis-Alexandre de Cessart, civil engineer
- Antoine de Chézy, hydrologist and civil engineer
- Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, mathematician and physicist
- Charles Ellet, Jr., American civil engineer
- Augustin-Jean Fresnel, physicist
- Eugène Freyssinet, structural and civil engineer, pioneer of prestressed concrete
- Jean Gallier, computer scientist
- Émiland Gauthey, civil engineer, designer of bridges, canals and roads, uncle of Claude-Louis Navier
- Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, chemist and physicist
- Hoàng Xuân Hãn, Vietnamese scholar, professor of mathematics, linguist, historian and educationalist
- Fouad Laroui, Moroccan economist and writer
- Alain Lipietz, economist and politician
- Charles Joseph Minard, civil engineer and pioneer of information graphics
- Claude-Louis Navier, engineer and physicist, known for Navier-Stokes equations
- Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, architect and structural engineer
- Antoine Picon, Professor of History of Architecture and Technology and Co-Director of Doctoral programs (PhD & DDes) at Harvard Graduate School of Design
- Ambroise Roux, CEO of Compagnie générale d'électricité (later known as Alcatel) from 1970 to 1981
- Prince Souphanouvong, president of Laos from 1975 to 1991
- Jean Tirole, economist, Nobel prize in Economic Sciences in 2014
- Daniel-Charles Trudaine, administrator and civil engineer
- Pierre Veltz, academic and École des Ponts ParisTech's former director
- Louis Vicat, engineer, inventor of artificial cement
- Raul Salinas de Gortari, civil engineer, politician and businessman
Past and present faculty include:
Notes and referencesEdit
- Nouvelle, L'Usine (10 March 2015). "Ecole des Ponts ParisTech". usinenouvelle.com. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "École des Ponts Business School". Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "Solvay Ponts MBA". Solvay Ponts MBA – Solvay Ponts MBA – Transform yourself, impact your world. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- (in French)Executive MBA au Maroc
- (in French)L'École des Ponts ParisTech et l'ENAC lancent un MBA en Chine
- "Paris Est d.school". Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- (in French)Academic partners
- "Archived copy". Ifsttar. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)}}
- Bensahel, Nathalie; Riche, Pascal (6 April 1999). "Ambroise Roux passe de l'ombre à trépas.Le plus puissant lobbyiste du patronat français est mort dimanche à l'âge de 77 ans. Intime de Pompidou, il régnait sur le capitalisme français depuis près de trente ans. près de trente ans". Libération. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "الرئيسية". Retrieved 21 July 2015.