||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (August 2012)|
Yun Chi-ho is standing in the rear. His father, Yun Ung-nyeol is seated, wearing the western uniform of the Korean Empire. This photograph captures the general with his family c. 1910.
|Born||16 January 1865|
|Died||9 December 1945(aged 80) (suicide)|
|Revised Romanization||Yun Chi-ho|
Yun Chi-ho (hangul:윤치호, hanja:尹致昊, 1864 – 1945) was a Korean politician and educator as well as an independence activist in Korea in the early 20th century. A penname was Jwa-ong (좌옹, 佐翁). A member of Korean early NGO's Independence Club(독립협회;獨立協會) and People's joint association(만민공동회;萬民共同會), Shinminhwae(신민회;新民會).
In 1884, he was a participant in the Gapsin Coup. later failure he was studying abroad ro China Qind dynasty and the United States, graduation of Vanderbilt University and Emory University. in 1896 to 1898 he was conduct to civil-rights and people rights movement and peoples political rights movement. but people for plinkage for his assert. also more people was Yun was resistance of emperor, traitor treat and despised. he was Despair, Popular rights and human rights movements to breaking off. later he was living of bureaucracy. he was think to Korean was perhaps non-Independence conclusion. later he was assert to Power training and Education, engineering technic to domesticate.
Yun Chi-ho was a member of one of the prominent yangban families of Korea. Son of General Yun Ung-nyeol, who served as a minister in the Joseon government. he attended Vanderbilt University in Tennessee before transferring to Emory University in Georgia. He was also an early leader of the Korean YMCA and a South Korean Methodist.
Yun Chi-ho was born in 1864. he was the eldest son of Yun Ung-nyeol (윤웅렬) and Lady Yi Cheong-mu (이정무) of the Jeonju Yi clan. He was born in 1864 in Dunpo, Asan County, South Chungcheong Province. Though his father was a skilled general, as an illegitimate son he was ignored by his colleagues, something the young Yun Chi-ho grew up witnessing.
Yun's family was Korean Joseon dynastys Illustrious noble families, his 9G-Great grandfather Yun Doo-su(윤두수;尹斗壽) was prime minister and that times famous politicians. but father Yun Ung-ryeol was a illegitimate son of his grandfather Yun Chwe-dong(윤취동;尹取東).
early years, he was improper discrimination to more towns childs, that his from reason of illegitimate line. In 1871 to 1878 Yun was studied to Confucianism Chang's private village school.
sixteen years aged he first marry of Lady Kang of Jinju, but her was to commit adadultery for Male slaves and beer. Yun was separation, in 1885 divorced. but Lady Kang was died in 1886.
Boyhood he was studied Neo-Confucianism to Eo Yun-jung's Academy. In 1879 he was studied of Park Kyu-su's Academy. that time he was meeting for Kim Ok-gyun and Hong Yeong-sik, Yu Gil-jun, Seo Jai-pil, Park Yeong-hyo. there was became Yun's best friend and remained so. In 1881 he went as one of Japan Observation Groups, it's goodwill envoy and make an inspection of American and Europe cultures. he was Identification of attendants Eo Yun-jung.
He had a meeting withs Fukuzawa Yukichi and Inoue Kaoru. Fukuzawa and Inoue's recommendations got him entrance into Dojinsya school. At that time he was concentrating on English study and hiragana, katakana's study.
In January 1883, he was to stay in Yokohama, he was studied to English language, for a japanese residence nederland diplomat.
Japanese Study Abroad
In 1883 graduate from Dojinsya school, he was one years travel to the United States and returned home in May 1884. also he was interpreter and secretary of first Ambassador of the Joseon to the United States Lucius Harwood Foote. a Korean he hired in Japan to serve as his Korean-Japanese interpreter. after he was served member of the staff of United States Embassy in Joseon to 1884. that time he was appointed to clerk of Foreign department of Joseon Dynastys.
Yun studied English with some of the missionaries in Japan and became quite proficient. In 1883, he was made the secretary and translator for the first American minister to Korea, Lucius Foote. But not all Koreans found English noble enough to learn. In February 1882, an English-language Japanese newspaper reported this alleged incidents.
|“||Two Coreans are staying at a Japanese hotel in Tokio, and one of them, who speaks Japanese fluently, intending to learn English, told his companion of it, and said he wished to learn the real value of Western civilization through the reading of English books.||”|
His companion said that although he was allowed to learn Japanese, as the Japanese were less barbarous than Western nations, yet he must not learn a Western language, as it would make him a barbarian too. Yun's enlightened friend, however, insisted upon learning English, till the other threatened to kill himself if he did not stop, and said that as Corea was a divine country, he could not think of his friend becoming a barbarian."
Reform political activities
In 1884 Kim Ok-gyun, Hong Yeong-sik, Yu Gil-jun, Seo Jai-pil, Park Yeong-hyo was stage a Gapsin Coup, also he was joined. after also his father was implicated in the abortive Gapsin Coup attempt of 1884. Yun Chiho saw himself cut off from opportunities in his native land. after the failure of the Gapsin Coups he was APB beholden. Just departure and went to Shanghai in China. one months, he was wandering. sadness about frustration reforms and the death of his friends news.
He studied for a while in Korea and China - and was converted to Christianity by Western missionaries - before eventually gaining entrance through missionary help first to Vanderbilt and then to Emory University in Georgia, USA. Upon completing his education at Emory in 1893, Yun headed back to Korea via Chicago, where he visited the World's Columbian Exhibition, or Chicago World's Fair.
In 1894 he was marry to Ma ae-bang, she was born daughter Yun Bong-hee and Son Yun Young-sun, Yun Bong-seong(early death), Yun Gwang-sun, daughter Yun Yong-hee. his son Young-sun was successive of Agriculture and forestry ninister of South Korea 1950 to 1952 and minister without portfolio 1952 to 1954.
While studying abroad in America in the 1880s and early 1890s Yun became determined to start up a newspaper in his own country. From 1895 to 1898 Yun participated in the production of the Tongnip Sinmun (독립신문;獨立新問), the first English language newspaper in Korea. In late 1895, Yun Chi-ho, who had had once served as an interpreter for the American legation in Seoul during the early 1880s, tried to establish his own newspaper but failed. His diary entry of Dec. 2, 1895, describes some of the reasons. Though Yun was disheartened, he didn’t have long to wait. Seo Jae-pil, now an American citizen, returned to Korea in 1895 and established what was heralded as the first independently owned newspaper in Korea, aptly named the Tongnip Sinmun, or The Independent.
The Independent began operations in April 1896 and published a four-page edition three times a week. As the paper gained popularity, the English section was published separately and it became a daily. Naturally, Yun Chi-ho also became involved in the newspaper and eventually came to run it after Seo was forced to leave Korea in April 1898.
Yun used the organ to launch a press campaign criticizing incompetent politicians, members of the royal family and their advisors. As a result, the newspaper was the focus of constant pressure by the Joseon government. At the end of 1898, Yun was given a government position and production of The Independent was turned over to Henry Gerhart Appenzeller, an American missionary, and H. Emberly, an Englishman. Under their leadership, the paper was far from a success. It ceased production in 1899.
Enlightenment and Independence Movements
After becoming a member of the 'Independence Club' (독립협회, 獨立協會) and the People's joint association (만민공동회, 萬民共同會), Yun became active in movements for political rights and democracy, alongside such figures as Seo Jae-pil, Syngman Rhee, Lee Sang-jae, and Kim Kyu-sik. But at this time, Yun and his fellow reformers were perceived by much of the Joseon populace as 'plotters against the government and king.' Yun was very disappointed by the failure of attempts at political reformation.
Yun Chi-ho went on to hold several posts in the government of Joseon Korea, including Minister of Education. He became Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1904. He was a prominent figure, serving as legislator, governor and Privy Councillor. He resigned at the time of the conclusion of the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905. In May 1905, he became director of Seoul YMCA. In October 1906, he opened the Korean-English School(한영서원;韓英書院), for which he became chairman. Later he devoted oneself to engaging in education and social enlightenment. In March 1906, he formed the Korean Jagang Club (대한자강회;大韓自强會), along with Chang Ji-yeon and Yun Hyo-jeong. He also took part in the anti-Japan independence movement.
In May 4, 1906, the Joseon government sent him to Japan as a Japanese Study Korean Student Commissioner, but four months later returned. In September of that year he was named chairman of Daesung School(대성학교;大成學校). In December 1906, he was appointed Vice-chairman of the Seoul YMCA. In 1907, he participated in the Emperor Gojong's Resignation Opposition Movement" in Seoul, but the movement was unsuccessful. In 1909, he participated in the Sinminhoe (신민회, 新民會).
In 1905, his wife Ma Ae-bang died, and two years later he was remarried to Baik Mae-ryo. Baik was from Hwanghae Province.
In February 1909, he was elected head of the Youngman Alumni Club(청년학우회;靑年學友會).
Japanese Annexation of Korea
he was disappointment, Korean peoples for always to emotional response from early years.
|“||Korean people Living is 10% of rationality and 90% of feelings.||”|
he was Korean societys to irrationality to Largely frustrated. In January 1910, he was participation of World Missionary Conference in america and that may, he attendance to Edinburgh World Missionary Conference in England. desember 1910, he was return to his country.
When the Korean Empire was overrun by Japanese military forces in 1910 (see Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910), Yun Chi-ho joined with others in resisting Japanese occupation. He became an anti-Imperialist speaker and independence activist. In 1911, he was Judgment for alleged assassination of the Governor General of Korea. he Suffer of malicious punishment, torture.(105-Man Incident)
In 1913, along with 104 others, he was charged with conspiracy against the Japanese Governor-General at the time, Count Terauchi. He was one of six who were convicted and sentenced to long prison terms. His experiences in prison tempered his willingness to express his nationalist ardor, but he was still considered active in the independence movement.
Korea under Japanese rule's Movements
usual Yun was he was assert to nothing independence also education and training, effective power and culture training.
In 1915, however, he turned away from Korean independence activism to become a pro-Japanese activist. After changing his allegiance to pro-Japanese, he joined many pro-Japanese associations, such as Toyohoe, Joseon-in Gyopungwon and Joseon-chikseon Gwijokwon-gyeong. Contemporary sources indicate that he either claimed or was granted the title of "Baron" within the Japanese hereditary peerage (see Kazoku), which had absorbed the Korean royal and noble rank system upon Korea's annexation by Japan in 1910.
In March 1919, he was boycott a March 1st Movement. but he was participation of National force trainism activity. 1930's he was passive resistance and civil disobedience to Governor-General of Korea. but he was threatened and pressured by Governor-General of Korea.
In addition, he participated as an executive in Governor-General of Korea. While many reasons are cited for his betrayal of the Korean independence movement (to include his dissatisfaction with his pro-independence compatriots and their apparent ease with the fraud, lack of sanitation, deceit, and hypocrisy that racked the independence movement), it is still not completely clear why such an ardent activist turned his back on the movement.
In 1936, outbreak of 'case of Suyang club'. he was all related person personal reference, release. that thim, he was endeavor of Ahn Chang-ho's acquittal, also Ahn Chang-ho's file a petition. but refused of Japanese Government-General of Korea. In 1938, outbreak of 'case of Heungeup club'. he was all related person personal reference and release. the Japanese colonial era, he was strongly deny to Japanese rule, he was more Japanese government and Governor-general auspices event. In 1940, he was come to book for reason of event absent from Japanese Government-General of Korea.
Asia-Pacific War time
In 1939, Japanese Government-General of Koreas order Japanese Sōshi-kaimei. Yun was go to propose for postpone order, because Korean nationals emotion. Japanese Government-General of Korea for that's acceptable, Japanese Government-General of Korea was next years postpones. In May 1940, his familys was Japanese Government-General of Korea conference for Sōshi-kaimei decision. his family name for Ito(이토;伊東). also coercive distraint Sōshi-kaimei for him, Ito Chikho.
later 1910 Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910s, meanwhile he was non-attendance and boycott for Japanese event and more official function, memorial day. In 1940s he was finally come to book for Japanese Government-General of Korea. also he was surveillance, internally investigated. In 1943 he was appoint to advisor of Japanese Government-General of Koreas Privy Council(중추원;中樞院), they enforced to their demands.
In 1945, He was elected to the House of Councillors of Imperial Japan (貴族院議員). However, Korea achieved independence from Japanese occupation by the Surrender of Japan, he was criticized of some unspecified peoples. because late Japanese colonial rule time, he was Japanese cooperation. he was opprobrium to emotional popular, he refutation also arguments.
In October 1945, he was send to two letter 'An OldMan's Ruminations' by John Hadge and Syngman Rhee, Kim Gu. but he did not receive a response. In november 1945, he returned to Korea, and died GoryeoJeong in Kaesong in december. (It is alleged by some that he committed suicide, although there is no evidence to support this.) his aged 80.
Honors↑Jump back a section
He was father Yun Ung-ryeul, mother name was Lee Jung-mu (이정무). his eldest sister Yun Kyung-hee(윤경희).
His napiew was Yun Bo-Seon. He was half-brother Yun Chi-Wang and Yun Chi-Chang. their mother of Kim JeongSun (김정순). 13th Mayor of Seoul Yun Chi-Young was his younger cousin, son of Yun Young-ryeol (윤영렬).
Yun Chi-ho was diplomat and politician who, among other things, might have been the author of the Korean national anthem, came back to Korea in 1895 after a few years in the United States. He brought a bicycle along with him and began to frequently ride it in Seoul.
Yun Bo-seon, a his nephew
- Korean spelling for Sitdown is old man
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- (512) Riding High koreatimes 2009.03.12
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
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