|Government Seal of Japan
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups (2011)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|-||Prime Minister||Shinzō Abe|
|-||Deputy Prime Minister||Tarō Asō|
|-||Upper house||House of Councillors|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||National Foundation Day||11 February 660 BC|
|-||Meiji Constitution||29 November 1890|
|-||Current constitution||3 May 1947|
|28 April 1952|
|-||Total||377,944 km2 (62nd)
145,925 sq mi
|-||2014 estimate||126,434,964 (10th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|-||Total||$4.788 trillion (4th)|
|-||Per capita||$37,683 (22nd)|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|-||Total||$4.769 trillion (3rd)|
|-||Per capita||$37,539 (25th)|
medium · 76th
|HDI (2013)|| 0.890
very high · 17th
|Currency||Yen (¥) / En 円 (JPY)|
|Time zone||JST (UTC+9)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+9)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||JP|
Japan i// (Japanese: 日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, literally "[the] State of Japan") is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Japan is often referred to as the "Land of the Rising Sun".
Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, which together comprise about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. Japan has the world's tenth-largest population, with over 126 million people. Honshū's Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de facto capital of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.
Archaeological research indicates that people lived in Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other nations followed by long periods of isolation has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was only ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. Nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection followed before the Meiji Emperor was restored as head of state in 1868 and the Empire of Japan was proclaimed, with the Emperor as a divine symbol of the nation. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since adopting its revised constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected legislature called the Diet.
Japan is a member of the United Nations, the G7, the G8, and the G-20 major economies. A major economic great power, Japan is a developed country and has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the world's eighth largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan ranks third in Asia on the Human Development Index, with the Japanese population enjoying the highest life expectancy in the world and the infant mortality rate being the third lowest globally.
From the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II, the full title of Japan was Dai Nippon Teikoku (大日本帝國?), meaning "the Empire of Great Japan". Today the name Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku (日本国?) is used as a formal modern-day equivalent; countries like Japan whose long form does not contain a descriptive designation are generally given a name appended by the character koku (国?), meaning "country", "nation" or "state".
Japanese people refer to themselves as Nihonjin (日本人?) and to their language as Nihongo (日本語?). Both Nippon and Nihon mean "sun-origin" and are often translated as Land of the Rising Sun. This nomenclature comes from Japanese missions to Imperial China and refers to Japan's eastward position relative to China. Before Nihon came into official use, Japan was known as Wa (倭?) or Wakoku (倭国?).
The English word for Japan came to the West via early trade routes. The Old Mandarin or possibly early Wu Chinese (吳語) pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本 'Japan' is Zeppen [zəʔpən]. The old Malay word for Japan, Jepang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect, probably Fukienese or Ningpo, and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Malacca in the 16th century. Portuguese traders were the first to bring the word to Europe. An early record of the word in English is in a 1565 letter, spelled Giapan.
Prehistory and ancient history
A Paleolithic culture around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the Japanese archipelago. This was followed from around 14,000 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture, who include ancestors of both the contemporary Ainu people and Yamato people, characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture. Decorated clay vessels from this period are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world. Around 300 BC, the Yayoi people began to enter the Japanese islands, intermingling with the Jōmon. The Yayoi period, starting around 500 BC, saw the introduction of practices like wet-rice farming, a new style of pottery, and metallurgy, introduced from China and Korea.
Japan first appears in written history in the Chinese Book of Han. According to the Records of the Three Kingdoms, the most powerful kingdom on the archipelago during the 3rd century was called Yamataikoku. Buddhism was first introduced to Japan from Baekje of Korea, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China. Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710).
The Nara period (710–784) of the 8th century marked the emergence of a strong Japanese state, centered on an imperial court in Heijō-kyō (modern Nara). The Nara period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literature as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired art and architecture. The smallpox epidemic of 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population. In 784, Emperor Kammu moved the capital from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō before relocating it to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto) in 794.
This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged, noted for its art, poetry and prose. Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem Kimigayo were written during this time.
Buddhism began to spread during the Heian era chiefly through two major sects, Tendai by Saichō, and Shingon by Kūkai. Pure Land Buddhism (Jōdo-shū, Jōdo Shinshū) greatly becomes popular in the latter half of the 11th century.
Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War, sung in the epic Tale of Heike, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo was appointed shogun and established a base of power in Kamakura. After his death, the Hōjō clan came to power as regents for the shoguns. The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class. The Kamakura shogunate repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281, but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. Go-Daigo was himself defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336.
Ashikaga Takauji established the shogunate in Muromachi, Kyoto. This was the start of the Muromachi Period (1336–1573). The Ashikaga shogunate achieved glory in the age of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, and the culture based on Zen Buddhism (art of Miyabi) prospered. This evolved to Higashiyama Culture, and prospered until the 16th century. On the other hand, the succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyo), and a civil war (the Ōnin War) began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States").
During the 16th century, traders and Jesuit missionaries from Portugal reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. Oda Nobunaga conquered many other daimyo using European technology and firearms; after he was assassinated in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in 1590. Hideyoshi invaded Korea twice, but following defeats by Korean and Ming Chinese forces and Hideyoshi's death, Japanese troops were withdrawn in 1598. This age is called Azuchi–Momoyama period (1573–1603).
Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi's son and used his position to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, he defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Ieyasu was appointed shogun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo). The Tokugawa shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyo; and in 1639, the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868). The study of Western sciences, known as rangaku, continued through contact with the Dutch enclave at Dejima in Nagasaki. The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku ("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese.
On 31 March 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. Subsequent similar treaties with Western countries in the Bakumatsu period brought economic and political crises. The resignation of the shogun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized state nominally unified under the Emperor (the Meiji Restoration).
Adopting Western political, judicial and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. The Meiji Restoration transformed the Empire of Japan into an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea, and the southern half of Sakhalin. Japan's population grew from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million in 1935.
The early 20th century saw a brief period of "Taishō democracy" overshadowed by increasing expansionism and militarization. World War I enabled Japan, on the side of the victorious Allies, to widen its influence and territorial holdings. It continued its expansionist policy by occupying Manchuria in 1931; as a result of international condemnation of this occupation, Japan resigned from the League of Nations two years later. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany, and the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers. In 1941, Japan negotiated the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact.
The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). The Imperial Japanese Army swiftly captured the capital Nanjing and conducted the Nanking Massacre. In 1940, the Empire then invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan. On 7 December 1941, Japan attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor and declared war, bringing the US into World War II. After the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender on 15 August. The war cost Japan and the rest of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere millions of lives and left much of the nation's industry and infrastructure destroyed. The Allies (led by the US) repatriated millions of ethnic Japanese from colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and restoring the independence of its conquered territories. The Allies also convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East on 3 May 1946 to prosecute some Japanese leaders for war crimes. However, the bacteriological research units and members of the imperial family involved in the war were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by the Supreme Allied Commander despite calls for trials for both groups.
In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952 and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. Japan later achieved rapid growth to become the second-largest economy in the world, until surpassed by China in 2010. This ended in the mid-1990s when Japan suffered a major recession. In the beginning of the 21st century, positive growth has signaled a gradual economic recovery. On 11 March 2011, Japan suffered the strongest earthquake in its recorded history; this triggered the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, one of the worst disasters in the history of nuclear power.
Government and politics
Japan is a constitutional monarchy where the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people." Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister and other elected members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people. Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan; Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan, stands as next in line to the throne.
Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives with 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and a House of Councillors of 242 seats, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 20 years of age, with a secret ballot for all elected offices. The Diet is dominated by the social liberal Democratic Party of Japan and the conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). The LDP has enjoyed near continuous electoral success since 1955, except for a brief 11 month period between 1993 and 1994, and from 2009 to 2012. It holds 294 seats in the lower house and 83 seats in the upper house.
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government and is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the Diet from among its members. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet, and he appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State. Following the LDP's landslide victory in the 2012 general election, Shinzō Abe replaced Yoshihiko Noda as the Prime Minister on 26 December 2012. Although the Prime Minister is formally appointed by the Emperor, the Constitution of Japan explicitly requires the Emperor to appoint whoever is designated by the Diet.
Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. However, since the late 19th century the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on a draft of the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch; with post–World War II modifications, the code remains in effect. Statutory law originates in Japan's legislature and has the rubber stamp of the Emperor. The Constitution requires that the Emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet, without specifically giving him the power to oppose legislation. Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts. The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes.
Foreign relations and military
Japan is a member of the G8, APEC, and "ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. Japan signed a security pact with Australia in March 2007 and with India in October 2008. It is the world's third largest donor of official development assistance after the United States and France, donating US$9.48 billion in 2009.
Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States; the US-Japan security alliance acts as the cornerstone of the nation's foreign policy. A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan has served as a non-permanent Security Council member for a total of 20 years, most recently for 2009 and 2010. It is one of the G4 nations seeking permanent membership in the Security Council.
Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors: with Russia over the South Kuril Islands, with South Korea over the Liancourt Rocks, with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands, and with China over the EEZ around Okinotorishima. Japan also faces an ongoing dispute with North Korea over the latter's abduction of Japanese citizens and its nuclear weapons and missile program (see also Six-party talks).
Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world. Japan contributed non-combatant troops to the Iraq War but subsequently withdrew its forces. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force is a regular participant in RIMPAC maritime exercises.
Japan's military (the Japan Self-Defense Forces) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. Accordingly Japan's Self-Defence force is a usual military that has never fired shots outside Japan. It is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations; the deployment of troops to Iraq marked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II. Nippon Keidanren has called on the government to lift the ban on arms exports so that Japan can join multinational projects such as the Joint Strike Fighter.
In May 2014 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passiveness it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more responsibility for regional security. He said Japan wanted to play a key role and offered neighboring countries Japan's support.
Japan consists of forty-seven prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor, legislature and administrative bureaucracy. Each prefecture is further divided into cities, towns and villages. The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging many of the cities, towns and villages with each other. This process will reduce the number of sub-prefecture administrative regions and is expected to cut administrative costs.
Japan has a total of 6,852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of East Asia. The country, including all of the islands it controls, lies between latitudes 24° and 46°N, and longitudes 122° and 146°E. The main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. The Ryukyu Islands, which includes Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. Together they are often known as the Japanese Archipelago.
About 73 percent of Japan is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use. As a result, the habitable zones, mainly located in coastal areas, have extremely high population densities. Japan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.
The islands of Japan are located in a volcanic zone on the Pacific Ring of Fire. They are primarily the result of large oceanic movements occurring over hundreds of millions of years from the mid-Silurian to the Pleistocene as a result of the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the continental Amurian Plate and Okinawa Plate to the south, and subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Okhotsk Plate to the north. Japan was originally attached to the eastern coast of the Eurasian continent. The subducting plates pulled Japan eastward, opening the Sea of Japan around 15 million years ago.
Japan has 108 active volcanoes. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century. The 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed over 140,000 people. More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, a 9.0-magnitude quake which hit Japan on 11 March 2011, and triggered a large tsunami. Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes and tsunami, having the highest natural disaster risk in the developed world.
The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south. Japan's geographical features divide it into six principal climatic zones: Hokkaido, Sea of Japan, Central Highland, Seto Inland Sea, Pacific Ocean, and Ryūkyū Islands. The northernmost zone, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter.
In the Sea of Japan zone on Honshu's west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn wind. The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter, and between day and night; precipitation is light, though winters are usually snowy. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round.
The Pacific coast features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season. The generally humid, temperate climate exhibits marked seasonal variation such as the blooming of the spring cherry blossoms, the calls of the summer cicada and fall foliage colors that are celebrated in art and literature.
The average winter temperature in Japan is 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) and the average summer temperature is 25.2 °C (77.4 °F). The highest temperature ever measured in Japan—40.9 °C (105.6 °F)—was recorded on 16 August 2007. The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north until reaching Hokkaido in late July. In most of Honshu, the rainy season begins before the middle of June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.
Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands. Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife, including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, and the Japanese giant salamander. A large network of national parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna as well as thirty-seven Ramsar wetland sites. Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value.
In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern about the problem, the government introduced several environmental protection laws in 1970. The oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan's lack of natural resources. Current environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation.
Japan is a world leader in developing and implementing new environmentally-friendly technologies, subsequently ranking 26th in the 2014 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability. As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, and host of the 1997 conference that created it, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change.
Some of the structural features for Japan's economic growth developed in the Edo period, such as the network of transport routes, by road and water, and the futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers. During the Meiji period from 1868, Japan expanded economically with the embrace of the market economy. Many of today's enterprises were founded at the time, and Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia. The period of overall real economic growth from the 1960s to the 1980s has been called the Japanese post-war economic miracle: it averaged 7.5 percent in the 1960s and 1970s, and 3.2 percent in the 1980s and early 1990s.
Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s during what the Japanese call the Lost Decade, largely because of the after-effects of the Japanese asset price bubble and domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and were further hampered by the global slowdown in 2000. The economy showed strong signs of recovery after 2005; GDP growth for that year was 2.8 percent, surpassing the growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.
As of 2012[update], Japan is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP, and the fourth largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity. As of December 2013[update], Japan's public debt was more than 200 percent of its annual gross domestic product, the second largest of any nation in the world. In August 2011, Moody's rating has cut Japan's long-term sovereign debt rating one notch from Aa3 to Aa2 inline with the size of the country's deficit and borrowing level. The large budget deficits and government debt since the 2009 global recession and followed by earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 made the rating downgrade. The service sector accounts for three quarters of the gross domestic product.
Japan has a large industrial capacity, and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronics, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods. Agricultural businesses in Japan cultivate 13 percent of Japan's land, and Japan accounts for nearly 15 percent of the global fish catch, second only to China. As of 2010[update], Japan's labor force consisted of some 65.9 million workers. Japan has a low unemployment rate of around four percent. Some 20 million people, around 17 per cent of the population, were below the poverty line in 2007. Housing in Japan is characterized by limited land supply in urban areas.
Japan's exports amounted to US$4,210 per capita in 2005. As of 2012[update], Japan's main export markets were China (18.1 percent), the United States (17.8 percent), South Korea (7.7 percent), Thailand (5.5 percent) and Hong Kong (5.1 percent). Its main exports are transportation equipment, motor vehicles, electronics, electrical machinery and chemicals. Japan's main import markets as of 2012 were China (21.3 percent), the US (8.8 percent), Australia (6.4 percent), Saudi Arabia (6.2 percent), United Arab Emirates (5.0 percent), South Korea (4.6 percent) and Qatar (4.0 percent).
Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries. By market share measures, domestic markets are the least open of any OECD country. Junichiro Koizumi's administration began some pro-competition reforms, and foreign investment in Japan has soared.
Japan ranks 27th of 189 countries in the 2014 Ease of doing business index and has one of the smallest tax revenues of the developed world. The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are relatively common in the Japanese work environment. Japanese companies are known for management methods like "The Toyota Way", and shareholder activism is rare.
Some of the largest enterprises in Japan include Toyota, Nintendo, NTT DoCoMo, Canon, Honda, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Sony, Panasonic, Toshiba, Sharp, Nippon Steel, Nippon Oil, and Seven & I Holdings Co.. It has some of the world's largest banks, and the Tokyo Stock Exchange (known for its Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices) stands as the second largest in the world by market capitalization. As of 2006[update], Japan was home to 326 companies from the Forbes Global 2000 or 16.3 percent. In 2013, it was announced that Japan would be importing shale natural gas.
Science and technology
Japan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly technology, machinery and biomedical research. Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and development budget, the third largest in the world. Japan is a world leader in fundamental scientific research, having produced nineteen Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine, three Fields medalists, and one Gauss Prize laureate. Some of Japan's more prominent technological contributions are in the fields of electronics, automobiles, machinery, earthquake engineering, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is Japan's space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. Japan's plans in space exploration include: launching a space probe to Venus, Akatsuki; developing the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter to be launched in 2016; and building a moon base by 2030.
On 14 September 2007, it launched lunar explorer "SELENE" (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) on an H-IIA (Model H2A2022) carrier rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. SELENE is also known as Kaguya, after the lunar princess of The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter. Kaguya is the largest lunar mission since the Apollo program. Its purpose is to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution. It entered a lunar orbit on 4 October, flying at an altitude of about 100 km (62 mi). The probe's mission was ended when it was deliberately crashed by JAXA into the Moon on 11 June 2009.
As of 2011[update], 46.1 percent of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 21.3 percent from coal, 21.4 percent from natural gas, 4.0 percent from nuclear power, and 3.3 percent from hydropower. Nuclear power produced 9.2 percent of Japan's electricity, as of 2011, down from 24.9 percent the previous year. However, as of 5 May 2012, all of the country's nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, though government officials have been continuing to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some of Japan's 50 nuclear reactors to service. Given its heavy dependence on imported energy, Japan has aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency.
Japan's road spending has been extensive. Its 1.2 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation. A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and is operated by toll-collecting enterprises. New and used cars are inexpensive; car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. However, at just 50 percent of all distance traveled, car usage is the lowest of all G8 countries.
Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu Corporation, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities and Japanese trains are known for their safety and punctuality. Proposals for a new Maglev route between Tokyo and Osaka are at an advanced stage. There are 175 airports in Japan; the largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's second-busiest airport. The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport, Kansai International Airport and Chūbu Centrair International Airport. Nagoya Port is the country's largest and busiest port, accounting for 10 percent of Japan's trade value.
Japan's population is estimated at around 127.3 million, with 80% of the population living on Honshū. Japanese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous, composed of 98.5% ethnic Japanese, with small populations of foreign workers. Zainichi Koreans, Zainichi Chinese, Filipinos, Brazilians mostly of Japanese descent, and Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent are among the small minority groups in Japan. In 2003, there were about 134,700 non-Latin American Western and 345,500 Latin American expatriates, 274,700 of whom were Brazilians (said to be primarily Japanese descendants, or nikkeijin, along with their spouses), the largest community of Westerners.
The most dominant native ethnic group is the Yamato people; primary minority groups include the indigenous Ainu and Ryukyuan peoples, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin. There are persons of mixed ancestry incorporated among the 'ethnic Japanese' or Yamato, such as those from Ogasawara Archipelago where roughly one-tenth of the Japanese population can have European, American, Micronesian and/or Polynesian backgrounds, with some families going back up to seven generations. In spite of the widespread belief that Japan is ethnically homogeneous (in 2009, foreign-born non-naturalized workers made up only 1.7% of the total population), also because of the absence of ethnicity and/or race statistics for Japanese nationals, at least one analysis describes Japan as a multiethnic society, for example, John Lie. However, this statement is refused by many sectors of Japanese society, who still tend to preserve the idea of Japan being a monocultural society and with this ideology of homogeneity, has traditionally rejected any need to recognize ethnic differences in Japan, even as such claims have been rejected by such ethnic minorities as the Ainu and Ryukyuan people. Former Japanese Prime Minister Tarō Asō has once described Japan as being a nation of "one race, one civilization, one language and one culture".
Japan has the second longest overall life expectancy at birth of any country in the world: 83.5 years for persons born in the period 2010–2015. The Japanese population is rapidly aging as a result of a post–World War II baby boom followed by a decrease in birth rates. In 2012, about 24.1 percent of the population was over 65, and the proportion is projected to rise to almost 40 percent by 2050.
The changes in demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline in workforce population and increase in the cost of social security benefits like the public pension plan. A growing number of younger Japanese are preferring not to marry or have families. In 2011, Japan's population dropped for a fifth year, falling by 204,000 people to 126.24 million people. This was the greatest decline since at least 1947, when comparable figures were first compiled. This decline was made worse by the 11 March earthquake and tsunami which killed nearly 16,000 people with approximately another 3,000 still listed as missing.
Japan's population is expected to drop to 95 million by 2050, demographers and government planners are currently in a heated debate over how to cope with this problem. Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population. Japan accepts a steady flow of 15,000 new Japanese citizens by naturalization (帰化) per year. According to the UNHCR, in 2012 Japan accepted just 18 refugees for resettlement, while the US took in 76,000.
Largest cities or towns of Japan
Japan enjoys full religious freedom based on Article 20 of its Constitution. Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Buddhism or Shinto, including a large number of followers of a syncretism of both religions. However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. Other studies have suggested that only 30 percent of the population identify themselves as belonging to a religion. According to Edwin Reischauer and Marius Jansen, some 70–80% of the Japanese regularly tell pollsters they do not consider themselves believers in any religion.
Nevertheless, the level of participation remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs. Japanese streets are decorated on Tanabata, Obon and Christmas. Fewer than one percent of Japanese are Christian. Other minority religions include Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Judaism, and since the mid-19th century numerous new religious movements have emerged in Japan.
More than 99 percent of the population speaks Japanese as their first language. Japanese is an agglutinative language distinguished by a system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary indicating the relative status of speaker and listener. Japanese writing uses kanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on simplified Chinese characters), as well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals.
Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages (Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni), also part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. Few children learn these languages, but in recent years the local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. The Okinawan Japanese dialect is also spoken in the region. The Ainu language, which has no proven relationship to Japanese or any other language, is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaido. Most public and private schools require students to take courses in both Japanese and English.
Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. Since 1947, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and middle school, which together last for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school, and, according to the MEXT, as of 2005[update] about 75.9 percent of high school graduates attended a university, junior college, trade school, or other higher education institution.
The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as sixth best in the world.
In Japan, health care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance. Patients are free to select the physicians or facilities of their choice.
Japanese culture has evolved greatly from its origins. Contemporary culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. Sixteen sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, twelve of which are of cultural significance.
The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture. Largely of wood, traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space. Japanese sculpture, largely of wood, and Japanese painting are among the oldest of the Japanese arts, with early figurative paintings dating back to at least 300 BC. The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas.
The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism, had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. Famous ukiyo-e artists include Hokusai and Hiroshige. The fusion of traditional woodblock printing and Western art led to the creation of manga, a comic book format that is now popular within and outside Japan. Manga-influenced animation for television and film is called anime. Japanese-made video game consoles have been popular since the 1980s.
Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries. The accompanied recitative of the Noh drama dates from the 14th century and the popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, from the sixteenth. Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century, now forms an integral part of Japanese culture. The imperial court ensemble Gagaku has influenced the work of some modern Western composers.
Notable classical composers from Japan include Toru Takemitsu and Rentarō Taki. Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop, or Japanese popular music. Karaoke is the most widely practiced cultural activity in Japan. A 1993 survey by the Cultural Affairs Agency found that more Japanese had sung karaoke that year than had participated in traditional pursuits such as flower arranging (ikebana) or tea ceremonies.
The earliest works of Japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man'yōshū poetry anthology, all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters. In the early Heian period, the system of phonograms known as kana (Hiragana and Katakana) was developed. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest Japanese narrative. An account of Heian court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the world's first novel.
During the Edo period, the chōnin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai (haiku) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi. The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as Japanese literature integrated Western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were the first "modern" novelists of Japan, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Yukio Mishima and, more recently, Haruki Murakami. Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors—Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburō Ōe (1994).
Japanese cuisine is based on combining staple foods, typically Japanese rice or noodles, with a soup and okazu — dishes made from fish, vegetable, tofu and the like – to add flavor to the staple food. In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats that had previously not been widely used in Japan were introduced. Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food, quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The Michelin Guide has awarded restaurants in Japan more Michelin stars than the rest of the world combined.
Traditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport. Japanese martial arts such as judo, karate and kendo are also widely practiced and enjoyed by spectators in the country. After the Meiji Restoration, many Western sports were introduced in Japan and began to spread through the education system. Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964. Japan has hosted the Winter Olympics twice: Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998. Tokyo will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, making Tokyo the first Asian city to host the Olympics twice. Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby Union country, winning the Asian Five Nations a record 6 times and winning the newly formed IRB Pacific Nations Cup in 2011. Japan will host the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup.
Baseball is currently the most popular spectator sport in the country. Japan's top professional league, Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936. Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has also gained a wide following. Japan was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004 and co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times. Also, Japan recently won the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011. Golf is also popular in Japan, as are forms of auto racing like the Super GT series and Formula Nippon. The country has produced one NBA player, Yuta Tabuse.
- "法制執務コラム集「法律と国語・日本語」" (in Japanese). Legislative Bureau of the House of Councillors. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- "World Factbook: Japan". CIA. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- According to legend, Japan was founded on this date by Emperor Jimmu, the country's first emperor.
- "Japan Statistical Yearbook 2010". Statistics Bureau. p. 17. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "住民基本台帳に基づく人口、人口動態及び世帯数のポイント（平成26年1月1日現在) ＊日本人住民は、平成21年をピークに５年連続で減少". Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "Population Count based on the 2010 Census Released". Statistics Bureau of Japan. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "Japan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "World Factbook: Gini Index". CIA. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "2014 Human Development Report". 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "SIPRI Yearbook 2012 - 15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2011". Sipri.org. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "WHO Life expectancy". World Health Organization. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "WHO: Life expectancy in Israel among highest in the world". Haaretz. May 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Table A.17". United Nations World Population Prospects, 2006 revision. UN. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- Piggott, Joan R. (1997). The emergence of Japanese kingship. Stanford University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 0-8047-2832-1.
- Boxer, Charles Ralph (1951). The Christian century in Japan 1549-1650. University of California Press. pp. 1–14. ISBN 1-85754-035-2. "As for the name Japan, which with Pires enters the European history for the first time in this form, it is generally agreed to be derived, through Malay Japun or Japang from the Chinese Jihpenkuo in one or other of its coastal dialect forms, probably Fukienese or Ningpo. The meaning is literally "sun's origin country," whence Marco Polo derived his Chipangu that so fired the imagination of Columbus and led him to the discovery of the New World.10"
- C. R. Boxer, The Christian Century In Japan 1549–1650, University of California Press, 1951p. 11, 28—36, 49—51, ISBN 1-85754-035-2
- Mancall, Peter C. (2006). "Of the Ilande of Giapan, 1565". Travel narratives from the age of discovery: an anthology. Oxford University Press. pp. 156–157.
- Matsumara, Hirofumi; Dodo, Yukio; Dodo, Yukio (2009). "Dental characteristics of Tohoku residents in Japan: implications for biological affinity with ancient Emishi". Anthropological Science 117 (2): 95–105. doi:10.1537/ase.080325.
- Hammer, Michael F., et al; Karafet, TM; Park, H; Omoto, K; Harihara, S; Stoneking, M; Horai, S (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- Travis, John. "Jomon Genes". University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- Denoon, Donald; Hudson, Mark (2001). Multicultural Japan: palaeolithic to postmodern. Cambridge University Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-521-00362-8.
- "Road of rice plant". National Science Museum of Japan. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Kofun Period". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Yayoi Culture". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- Takashi, Okazaki; Goodwin, Janet (1993). "Japan and the continent". The Cambridge history of Japan, Volume 1: Ancient Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 275. ISBN 0-521-22352-0.
- Brown, Delmer M., ed. (1993). The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140–149.
- Beasley, William Gerald (1999). The Japanese Experience: A Short History of Japan. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-520-22560-0.
- Totman, Conrad (2002). A History of Japan. Blackwell. pp. 64–79. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Hays, J.N. (2005). Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history. ABC-CLIO. p. 31. ISBN 1-85109-658-2.
- Totman, Conrad (2002). A History of Japan. Blackwell. pp. 79–87, 122–123. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 106–112. ISBN 1-4051-2359-1.
- Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan: 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. pp. 42, 217. ISBN 0-8047-0525-9.
- Turnbull, Stephen (2002). Samurai Invasion: Japan's Korean War. Cassel. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-304-35948-6.
- Turnbull, Stephen (2010). Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Osprey Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-84603-960-7.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 142–143. ISBN 1-4051-2359-1.
- Toby, Ronald P. (1977). "Reopening the Question of Sakoku: Diplomacy in the Legitimation of the Tokugawa Bakufu". Journal of Japanese Studies 3 (2): 323–363. doi:10.2307/132115.
- Ohtsu, M.; Ohtsu, Makoto (1999). "Japanese National Values and Confucianism". Japanese Economy 27 (2): 45–59. doi:10.2753/JES1097-203X270245.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 289–296. ISBN 1-4051-2359-1.
- Matsusaka, Y. Tak (2009). "The Japanese Empire". In Tsutsui, William M. Companion to Japanese History. Blackwell. pp. 224–241. ISBN 9781-4051-1690-9.
- Hiroshi, Shimizu; Hitoshi, Hirakawa (1999). Japan and Singapore in the world economy : Japan's economic advance into Singapore, 1870–1965. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-415-19236-1.
- "The Axis Alliance". iBiblio. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. p. 442. ISBN 1-4051-2359-1.
- "Judgment International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Chapter VIII: Conventional War Crimes (Atrocities)". iBiblio. November 1948.
- Worth, Roland H., Jr. (1995). No Choice But War: the United States Embargo Against Japan and the Eruption of War in the Pacific. McFarland. pp. 56, 86. ISBN 0-7864-0141-9.
- "インドネシア独立運動と日本とスカルノ（２）". 馬 樹禮 (in Japanese). 産経新聞社. April 2005. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- "The Kingdom of the Netherlands Declares War with Japan". iBiblio. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Pape, Robert A. (1993). "Why Japan Surrendered". International Security 18 (2): 154–201. doi:10.2307/2539100.
- Watt, Lori (2010). When Empire Comes Home: Repatriation and Reintegration in Postwar Japan. Harvard University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-674-05598-8.
- Thomas, J.E. (1996). Modern Japan. Longman. pp. 284–287. ISBN 0-582-25962-2.
- Coleman, Joseph (6 March 2007). "'52 coup plot bid to rearm Japan: CIA". The Japan Times. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
- "Japan scraps zero interest rates". BBC News. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
- Fackler, Martin; Drew, Kevin (11 March 2011). "Devastation as Tsunami Crashes Into Japan". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- "The Constitution of Japan". Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. 3 November 1946. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Fackler, Martin (27 December 2013). "Ex-Premier Is Chosen To Govern Japan Again". The New York Times (New York). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Dean, Meryll (2002). Japanese legal system: text, cases & materials (2nd ed.). Cavendish. pp. 55–58. ISBN 978-1-85941-673-0.
- Kanamori, Shigenari (1 January 1999). "German influences on Japanese Pre-War Constitution and Civil Code". European Journal of Law and Economics 7 (1): 93–95. doi:10.1023/A:1008688209052.
- "The Japanese Judicial System". Office of the Prime Minister of Japan. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- Dean, Meryll (2002). Japanese legal system: text, cases & materials (2nd ed.). Cavendish. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-85941-673-0.
- "Japan-Australia Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation between Japan and India". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Net Official Development Assistance in 2009". OECD. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Michael Green. "Japan Is Back: Why Tokyo's New Assertiveness Is Good for Washington". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
- "UK backs Japan for UNSC bid". Central Chronicle. Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
- Schoenbaum, Thomas J., ed. (2008). Peace in Northeast Asia. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. pp. 26–29.
- Chanlett-Avery, Emma. "North Korea's Abduction of Japanese Citizens and the Six-Party Talks". CRS Report for Congress. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2009". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Tokyo says it will bring troops home from Iraq". International Herald Tribune. 20 June 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
- "About RIMPAC". Government of Singapore. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- 正論, May 2014 (171).
- "Japan business lobby wants weapon export ban eased". Reuters. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- "Abe offers Japan's help in maintaining regional security". Japan Herald. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- McCargo, Duncan (2000). Contemporary Japan. Macmillan. pp. 84–85. ISBN 0333710002.
- Mabuchi, Masaru (May 2001). "Municipal Amalgamation in Japan". World Bank. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
- McCargo, Duncan (2000). Contemporary Japan. Macmillan. pp. 8–11. ISBN 0-333-710002.
- "Japan". US Department of State. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "World Population Prospects". UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Archived from the original on 21 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- Barnes, Gina L. (2003). "Origins of the Japanese Islands". University of Durham. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- "Tectonics and Volcanoes of Japan". Oregon State University. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- James, C.D. (2002). "The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake and Fire". University of California Berkeley. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "USGS analysis as of March 12, 2011". Earthquake.usgs.gov. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- 2013 World Risk Report
- Karan, Pradyumna Prasad; Gilbreath, Dick (2005). Japan in the 21st century. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 18–21, 41. ISBN 0-8131-2342-9.
- "Climate". JNTO. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Gifu Prefecture sees highest temperature ever recorded in Japan – 40.9". Japan News Review Society. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
- "Essential Info: Climate". JNTO. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- "Flora and Fauna: Diversity and regional uniqueness". Embassy of Japan in the USA. Archived from the original on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- "The Wildlife in Japan". Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "National Parks of Japan". Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "The Annotated Ramsar List: Japan". Ramsar. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Japan – Properties Inscribed on the World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
- "日本の大気汚染の歴史" (in Japanese). Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Sekiyama, Takeshi. "Japan's international cooperation for energy efficiency and conservation in Asian region". Energy Conservation Center. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Environmental Performance Review of Japan". OECD. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Environmental Performance Index: Japan". Yale University. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Japan sees extra emission cuts to 2020 goal -minister". World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Japan's Tokyo Stock Exchange is the second largest stock market with a market value of $3.8 trillion". The Economic Times (India). 19 June 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- Howe, Christopher (1996). The Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy. Hurst & Company. pp. 58f. ISBN 1-85065-538-3.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 312–314. ISBN 1-4051-2359-1.
- McCargo, Duncan (2000). Contemporary Japan. Macmillan. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-333-71000-2.
- Ryan, Liam (1 January 2000). "The "Asian economic miracle" unmasked: The political economy of the reality". International Journal of Social Economics 27 (7–10): 802–815. doi:10.1108/03068290010335235.
- Masake, Hisane (2 March 2006). "A farewell to zero". Asia Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Inman, James (21 January 2011). "China confirmed as World's Second Largest Economy". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Moody's cuts Japan's debt rating on deficit concerns". BBC News. 24 August 2011.
- "Manufacturing and Construction". Statistical Handbook of Japan. Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "World Motor Vehicle Production by Country". OICA. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Background Note: Japan". US State Department. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Fackler, Martin (21 April 2010). "Japan Tries to Face Up to Growing Poverty Problem". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "2008 Housing and Land Survey". Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Economic survey of Japan 2008". OECD. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Foreign investment in Japan soars". BBC. 29 June 2005. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Japan's Economy: Free at last". The Economist. 20 July 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Activist shareholders swarm in Japan". The Economist. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Japan 500 2007". Financial Times. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Market Data". New York Stock Exchange. 31 January 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2007.
- "The Forbes 2000". Forbes. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Abe Says Japan, Canada Agree to Cooperate on Natural Gas
- McDonald, Joe (4 December 2006). "China to spend $136 billion on R&D". BusinessWeek.
- "Japanese Nobel Laureates". Kyoto University. 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- "Japanese Fields Medalists". Kyoto University. 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- "Dr. Kiyoshi Ito receives Gauss Prize". Kyoto University. 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- "The Boom in Robot Investment Continues". UN Economic Commission for Europe. 17 October 2000. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
- "Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Homepage". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 3 August 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
- "JAXA | Venus Climate Orbiter "AKATSUKI" (PLANET-C)". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- "ISAS | Venus Meteorology AKATSUKI (PLANET-C)". Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- "ESA Science & Technology: Fact Sheet". esa.int. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "Japan Plans Moon Base by 2030". MoonDaily. 3 August 2006. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- ""KAGUYA" selected as SELENE's nickname". Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Japan Successfully Launches Lunar Explorer "Kaguya"". Japan Corporate News Network. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Japan launches first lunar probe". BBC News. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "JAXA, KAGUYA (SELENE) Image Taking of "Full Earth-Rise" by HDTV". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Japanese probe crashes into Moon". BBC News. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- "Energy". Statistical Handbook of Japan 2013. Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Tsukimori, Osamu (5 May 2012). "Japan nuclear power-free as last reactor shuts". Reuters. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- "Can nuclear power save Japan from peak oil?". Our World 2.0. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "Japan". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Pollack, Andrew (1 March 1997). "Japan's Road to Deep Deficit is Paved with Public Works". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Transport". Statistical Handbook of Japan 2007. Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Transport in Japan". International Transport Statistics Database. International Road Assessment Program. Retrieved 17 February 2009. (subscription required)
- "About the Shinkansen – Safety". Central Japan Railway Company. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Corporate Culture as Strong Diving Force for Punctuality- Another "Just in Time"". Hitachi. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "Japan to approve plans for a new super-train". The Independent (London). 27 April 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Year to Date Passenger Traffic". Airports Council International. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Nakagawa, Dai; Matsunaka, Ryoji (2006). Transport Policy and Funding. Elsevier. p. 63. ISBN 0-08-044852-6.
- "Port Profile". Port of Nagoya. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "'Multicultural Japan' remains a pipe dream". Japan Times. 27 March 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "CIA Factbook: Japan". Cia.gov. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Japan-born Koreans live in limbo". The New York Times. 2 April 2005. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Onishi, Norimitsu (1 November 2008). "An Enclave of Brazilians Is Testing Insular Japan". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "'Home' is where the heartbreak is for Japanese-Peruvians". Asia Times. 16 October 1999. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Registered Foreigners in Japan by Nationality". Statistics Bureau. Archived from the original on 24 August 2005. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Fogarty, Philippa (6 June 2008). "Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu". BBC. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
- "The Invisible Race". Time. 8 January 1973. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- McCormack, Gavan. "Dilemmas of Development on The Ogasawara Islands," JPRI Occasional Paper, No. 15 (August 1999).
- "Japan to Immigrants: Thanks, But You Can Go Home Now". Time. 20 April 2009.
- John Lie Multiethnic Japan (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001)
- "Aso says Japan is nation of 'one race'". The Japan Times. 18 October 2005.
- "Statistical Handbook of Japan 2013: Chapter 2—Population". Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Gonzalo Garland et al "Dynamics of Demographic Development and its impact on Personal Saving : case of Japan", with Albert Ando, Andrea Moro, Juan Pablo Cordoba, in Ricerche Economiche, Vol 49, August 1995
- Ogawa, Naohiro. "Demographic Trends and their implications for Japan's future". Transcript of speech delivered on 7 March 1997. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- "Japan Population Drops Most Since World War II". 2 January 2012.
- Ryall, Julian (3 January 2012). "Japan's population contracts at fastest rate since at least 1947". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Forecast provided by International Futures
- Sakanaka, Hidenori (5 October 2005). "Japan Immigration Policy Institute: Director's message". Japan Immigration Policy Institute. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2007.
- French, Howard (24 July 2003). "Insular Japan Needs, but Resists, Immigration". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
- "帰化許可申請者数等の推移" (in Japanese). Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- "2012 saw record-high 2,545 people apply for refugee status in Japan". Japan Times. 20 March 2013.
- "Presidential Memorandum--Fiscal Year 2012 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status". The White House. 30 September 2011.
- Strom, Stephanie (15 July 1999). "In Japan, Mired in Recession, Suicides Soar". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- Lewis, Leo (19 June 2008). "Japan gripped by suicide epidemic". The Times. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- "Bare statistics mask human cost of Japan’s high suicide rate". Japan Today. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Ozawa-de Silva, Chikako (December 2008). "Too Lonely to Die Alone: Internet Suicide Pacts and Existential Suffering in Japan". Cult Med Psychiatry 32 (4): 516–551. doi:10.1007/s11013-008-9108-0. PMID 18800195.
- Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (15 September 2006). "International Religious Freedom Report 2006". US Department of State. Retrieved 4 December 2007.
- Kisala, Robert (2005). Wargo, Robert, ed. The Logic Of Nothingness: A Study of Nishida Kitarō. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-8248-2284-6.
- Reischauer, Edwin Oldfather; Jansen, Marius B. (1988). The Japanese today: change and continuity (2nd ed.). Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-674-47184-9.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. p. 72. ISBN 1-4051-2359-1.
- Kato, Mariko (24 February 2009). "Christianity's long history in the margins". Japan Times.
- Clarke, Peter, ed. (1993). The World's religions : understanding the living faiths. Reader's Digest. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-89577-501-6.
- Miyagawa, Shigeru. "The Japanese Language". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Heinrich, Patrick (January 2004). "Language Planning and Language Ideology in the Ryūkyū Islands". Language Policy 3 (2): 153–179. doi:10.1023/B:LPOL.0000036192.53709.fc.
- "15 families keep ancient language alive in Japan". UN. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- Ellington, Lucien (1 September 2005). "Japan Digest: Japanese Education". Indiana University. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2006.
- Ambasciata d'Italia a Tokio: Lo studio della lingua e della cultura italiana in Giappone.
- Ellington, Lucien (1 December 2003). "Beyond the Rhetoric: Essential Questions About Japanese Education". Foreign Policy Research Institute. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- "School Education". MEXT. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "TOP – 100". Global Universities Ranking. 2009. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- "QS World University Rankings 2010". QS TopUniversities. 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "OECD's PISA survey shows some countries making significant gains in learning outcomes". OECD. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Rodwin, Victor. "Health Care in Japan". New York University. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
- "Health Insurance: General Characteristics". National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
- "Administration of Cultural Affairs in Japan". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Tange, Kenzo; Kawazoe, Noboru (1965). Ise: Prototype of Japanese Architecture. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
- Kazuo, Nishi; Kazuo, Hozumi (1995). What is Japanese Architecture?: A Survey of Traditional Japanese Architecture with a List of Sites and a Map. Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-7700-1992-9.
- Arrowsmith, Rupert Richard (2010). Modernism and the Museum: Asian, African, and Pacific Art and the London Avant-Garde. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959369-9.
- "A History of Manga". NMP International. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Herman, Leonard; Horwitz, Jer; Kent, Steve; Miller, Skyler (2002). "The History of Video Games". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- Malm, William P. (2000). Traditional Japanese music and musical instruments (New ed.). Kodansha International. pp. 31–45. ISBN 978-4-7700-2395-7.
- See for example, Olivier Messiaen, Sept haïkaï (1962), (Olivier Messiaen: a research and information guide, Routledge, 2008, By Vincent Perez Benitez, page 67) and (Messiaen the Theologian, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2010, page 243-65, By Andrew Shenton)
- Campion, Chris (22 August 2005). "J-Pop History". The Observer (London). Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- Martinez, D.P., ed. (1998). The worlds of Japanese popular culture: gender, shifting boundaries and global cultures (Repr. ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-521-63729-9.
- Keene, Donald (2000). Seeds in the Heart: Japanese Literature from Earliest Times to the Late Sixteenth Century. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11441-7.
- "Asian Studies Conference, Japan (2000)". Meiji Gakuin University. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- "Windows on Asia—Literature : Antiquity to Middle Ages: Recent Past". Michigan State University. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 126–127. ISBN 1-4051-2359-1.
- Royall, Tyler, ed. (2003). The Tale of Genji. Penguin Classics. pp. i–ii, xii. ISBN 0-14-243714-X.
- Keene, Donald (1999). World Within Walls: Japanese Literature of the Pre-Modern Era, 1600–1867. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11467-7.
- "A Day in the Life: Seasonal Foods", The Japan Forum Newsletter No.14 September 1999.
- "「ミシュランガイド東京・横浜・鎌倉2011」を発行 三つ星が14軒、 二つ星が54軒、一つ星が198軒に" (in Japanese). Michelin Japan. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- "Sumo: East and West". PBS. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
- "Culture and Daily Life". Embassy of Japan in the UK. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- "Olympic History in Japan". Japanese Olympic Committee. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- IOC selects Tokyo as host of 2020 Summer Olympic Games
- "rugbyworldcup.com". Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Nagata, Yoichi; Holway, John B. (1995). "Japanese Baseball". In Palmer, Pete. Total Baseball (4th ed.). Viking Press. p. 547.
- "Soccer as a Popular Sport: Putting Down Roots in Japan". The Japan Forum. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- "Previous FIFA World Cups". FIFA. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "Team Japan". Asian Football Confederation. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Japan edge USA for maiden title". FIFA. 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Varcoe, Fred. "Japanese Golf Gets Friendly". Metropolis. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- Clarke, Len. "Japanese Omnibus: Sports". Metropolis. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- "Hoop Dreams – Yuta Tabuse, "The Jordan of Japan"". Consulate General of Japan in New York. December 2004 – January 2005. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- Flath, The Japanese Economy, Oxford University Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-19-877503-2)
- Henshall, A History of Japan, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001 (ISBN 0-312-23370-1)
- Iwabuchi, Recentering Globalization: Popular Culture and Japanese Transnationalism, Duke University Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-8223-2891-7)
- Jansen, The Making of Modern Japan, Belknap, 2000 (ISBN 0-674-00334-9)
- Kato et al., A History of Japanese Literature: From the Man'Yoshu to Modern Times, Japan Library, 1997 (ISBN 1-873410-48-4)
- Samuels, Securing Japan: Tokyo's Grand Strategy and the Future of East Asia, Cornell University Press, 2008 (ISBN 0-8014-7490-6)
- Silverberg, Erotic Grotesque Nonsense: The Mass Culture of Japanese Modern Times, University of California Press, 2007 (ISBN 0-520-22273-3)
- Sugimoto et al., An Introduction to Japanese Society, Cambridge University Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-521-52925-5)
- Varley, Japanese Culture, University of Hawaii Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-8248-2152-1)
|Find more about Japan at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Kantei.go.jp, official site of the Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet
- Kunaicho.go.jp, official site of the Imperial House
- National Diet Library
- Public Relations Office
- General information
- Japan entry at The World Factbook
- Japan from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Japan at DMOZ
- Japan profile from BBC News
- Energy Profile for Japan from the US Energy Information Administration
- Japan from the OECD
- Key Development Forecasts for the Japan from International Futures