The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are typologically rare in European languages, such as the voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ] and voiceless nasal stops. Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable in polysyllabic words, while the word-final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitch than the stressed syllable.
|Stop||p b||t d||k ɡ|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s (z)||ɬ||ʃ||χ (ʁ)||h|
|Nasal||(m̥) m||(n̥) n||(ŋ̊) ŋ|
Symbols in parentheses are either allophones, or found only in loanwords. The sound /z/ generally occurs in loanwords, e.g., sw /zuː/ 'zoo', although this is usually realised as /s/ in northern accents, e.g., /su:/. The postalveolar affricates /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ occur mainly in loanwords, e.g., tships /tʃɪps/ 'chips' and jeli /ˈdʒɛli/ 'jelly', but also in some dialects as developments from /tj/ and /dj/, e.g. /dʒaul/ from diafol /ˈdjavɔl/ 'devil'. The voiceless nasals /m̥ n̥ ŋ̊/ occur mostly word-initially, as a consequence of nasal mutation. Initial /χw/ (or /χʷ/) is colloquially realised as /ʍ/ in the south, e.g., chwech /χweːχ/ 'six' pronounced /ʍeːχ/.
The stops /p t k/ are distinguished from /b d ɡ/ by means of aspiration more consistently than by voicing, as /b d ɡ/ are actually devoiced in most contexts. This devoiced nature is recognised in the spelling of /sp sk/ as ⟨sb sg⟩, although /st/ is orthographically ⟨st⟩ for historical reasons.
The fricatives /v ð/ may also be devoiced in some contexts, but are distinguished from /f θ/ by having a shorter frication length than the latter. There is a tendency in the spoken language not to pronounce these voiced fricatives in certain contexts, e.g. nesaf /nɛsav/ 'next' realised as /ˈnɛsa/ or i fyny /iː ˈvənɨ/ 'up' from mynydd /mənɨ̞ð/ 'mountain'. Historically, this occurred so often with the voiced uvular fricative that it disappeared entirely from the language. Some speakers realise the unvoiced lateral fricative /ɬ/ as an unvoiced palatal fricative in some or all contexts. The occurrence and distribution of the phoneme /ʃ/ varies from area to area. Very few native words are pronounced with /ʃ/ by all speakers, e.g., siarad /ˈʃarad/ 'speak, talk', although it appears in borrowings, e.g., siop /ʃɔp/ 'shop'. In northern accents, it can occur when /s/ precedes /iː j/ or /j/, e.g. mi es i /mi ˈeːʃ iː/ 'I went'. In some southern dialects it is produced when /s/ follows /ɪ/ or /iː/, e.g. mis /miːʃ/ 'month'. The unvoiced fricative /χ/ is realised as uvular except by some south-western speakers, who produce the sound in the velar region.
The vowel phonemes of Welsh are as follows:
The vowels /ɨ̞/ and /ɨː/ occur only in Northern dialects; in Southern dialects they are replaced by /ɪ/ and /iː/ respectively. In Southern dialects, the contrast between long and short vowels is found in stressed syllables only; in Northern dialects, the contrast is found only in stressed word-final syllables (including monosyllabic words).
The vowel /ə/ does not occur in the final syllable of words (except a few monosyllabic proclitics). In Southern dialects, schwa can be long or short. In Northern dialects, schwa is always short, because long vowels appear only in word-final syllables, a position where schwa never appears.
|mid||əi/ɛi, ɔi||əɨ/ɛɨ, ɔɨ||əu/ɛu, ɔu|
The diphthongs containing /ɨ/ occur only in Northern dialects; in Southern dialects /ʊɨ/ is replaced by /ʊi/, /ɨu, əɨ~ɛɨ, ɔɨ/ are merged with /ɪu, əi~ɛi, ɔi/, and /aɨ, ɑːɨ/ are merged with /ai/. There is a general tendency in the South to simplify diphthongs in everyday speech, e.g., Northern /ɡwɑːɨθ/ corresponding to /ɡwaːθ/ in the South, or Northern /ɡwɛiθjɔ/ and Southern /ɡwiθɔ/.
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Stress and pitch
Stress in polysyllabic words occurs most commonly on the penultimate syllable, more rarely on the final syllable (e.g. verbs ending in -áu). Exceptions can arise in relation to borrowings from foreign words, such as ambiwlans and testament. According to its positioning, related words or concepts (or even plurals) can sound quite different, as syllables are added to the end of a word and the stress moves correspondingly, e.g.:
ysgrif /ˈəsɡriv/ — an article or essay ysgrifen /əsˈɡriven/ — writing ysgrifennydd /əsɡriˈvenɨð/ — a secretary ysgrifenyddes /əsɡriveˈnəðes/ — a female secretary
Note also how adding a syllable to ysgrifennydd to form ysgrifenyddes changes the pronunciation of the second "y". This is because the pronunciation of "y" depends on whether or not it is in the final syllable.
Stress on penultimate syllables is characterised by a low pitch, which is followed by a high pitch on the (unstressed) word-final syllable. In words where stress is on the final syllable, that syllable also bears the high pitch.
- Glyn E. Jones (1984), "The distinctive vowels and consonants of Welsh". In Welsh Phonology: Selected Readings, ed. M. J. Ball and G. E. Jones. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 40–64. ISBN 0-7083-0861-9.
- John C. Wells, Accents of English, Cambridge University Press, 1982, page 390.
- Martin J. Ball (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Welsh Phonology: Selected Readings, ed. M. J. Ball and G. E. Jones, Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 5–39. ISBN 0-7083-0861-9.
- Briony J. Williams (1983), Stress in Modern Welsh. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge. Distributed by Indiana University Linguistics Club.
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